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  Centenary of World War 1 (1914-1918)  

 

 

 

  WWI Centenary   Australian War Memorial
  1915 - Timeline The Australian Light Horse Association
  1916 - Timeline   History of the Great War
  1917 - Timeline  
    1918 - Timeline  
  Australian Weapons  
  Australian  Uniforms  
  Australian Battalions  
   

 

 1915 Timeline 

JANUARY 1915

 

1st January

H.M.S. "Formidable" sunk by German submarine in the English Channel.

8th January

Battle of Soissons begins (see 14th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

11th January

Rumanian Government negotiate loan of £5,000,000 in Great Britain.

Last rebels in the Transvaal captured (see December 28th, 1914).

13th January

British War Council resolve that the Admiralty should prepare for a naval expedition in February against the Dardanelles (see 28th, and December 30th, 1914).

Baron Burian succeeds Count Berchtold [Appointed February 19th, 1912.] as Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign affairs (see December 22nd, 1916).

14th January

Battle of Soissons ends (see 8th).

19th January

First airship raid on England (see December 21st, 1914, and August 5th, 1918).

21st January

Lieut.-General von Falkenhayn [Appointed in 1906.] succeeded as German Minister for War by Lieut.-General Wild von Hohenborn (see October 30th, 1916). General von Falkenhayn remains Chief of the General Staff (see August 29th, 1916).

24th January

Action of the Dogger Bank. German cruiser "Blücher" sunk.

German airship "P.L.-19" brought down near Libau.

Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray resigns as Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 25th, and August 4th, 1914).

Lieut.-General Sir W. Robertson resigns as Quartermaster-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 25th and 27th, and August 4th, 1914).

British Government offer Greek Government concessions in Asia Minor in return for help to Serbia (see 25th and 29th, April 12th, 1915, and December 5th, 1914).

25th January

Lieut.-General Sir W. Robertson appointed Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 24th, and December 22nd).

26th January

Turkish advance on Egypt through Sinai begins (see February 2nd).

Entente Governments agree to hold "Pact of London" applicable to war with Turkey (see September 5th, 1914).

27th January

Lieut.-General Sir R. C. Maxwell appointed Quartermaster-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 24th, and December 22nd, 1917).

28th January

British Government definitely decide to make naval attack on the Dardanelles (see 13th).

United States S.V. "William P. Frye" sunk by German armed merchant cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" (see August 6th, 1914, and April 8th, 1915).

29th January

Walney Island battery (Barrow-in-Furness) shelled by German submarine (first operation of German submarines in the Irish Sea).

Greek Government decline to intervene on behalf of Serbia (see 24th and 25th, and February 15th).

30th January

British Admiralty warn British merchant vessels to fly neutral or no ensigns in vicinity of British Isles (see February 6th, 7th and 11th).

 

FEBRUARY 1915

 

1st February

British Admiralty issue orders forbidding neutral fishing vessels to use British ports.

2nd February

Turkish advance-guards reach the Suez Canal (see 3rd, and January 26th).

3rd February

Actions on the Suez Canal begin (see 4th).

4th February

The Winter Battle in Masuria (East Prussia) begins (see 22nd).

Actions on the Suez Canal end (see 3rd February). Turkish forces retreat into Sinai.

German Government announce that submarine blockade of Great Britain will begin on 18th February.

5th February

British, French and Russian Governments agree to pool their financial resources (see June 3rd).

6th February

British S.S. "Lusitania" arrives at Liverpool flying United States flag (see 7th, January 30th and May 7th).

7th February

British Foreign Office issue statement justifying use of neutral flag at sea (see 6th and 11th February, and January 30th).

9th February

1st Canadian Division crosses from England to France (9th/11th) (see October 15th 1914).

11th February

United States Government send Note to British Government deprecating use of neutral flag (see 7th).

S.S. "Dacia" sails from United States for Bremen (Germany) with cargo of cotton (see February 27th, and January 6th).

15th February

Entente Governments suggest to Greek Government that Greece should intervene in support of Serbia, and promise military support at Salonika (see January 29th and March 5th).

Mutiny of the 5th Light Infantry (Indian Army) at Singapore.

Agreement concluded between Great Britain and France supplementing "prize" convention of November 9th, 1914.

16th February

Oyem (Cameroons) occupied by French forces.

British Government decide to send a division (the 29th) to the Dardanelles (see 20th, and April 25th).

British Government extend prohibition of "trading with the enemy" to territories in British, enemy, or friendly occupation.

17th February

German airship "L.-3" stranded and destroyed off Fanö, and "L.-4" destroyed near Blaavands Huk (Denmark).

18th February

German submarine blockade of Great Britain begins (see February 4th).

19th February

Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles forts commences (see March 18th).

Norwegian S.S. "Belridge" torpedoed, but reaches port. First ship torpedoed by German submarine without warning [German Government subsequently asserted that this ship was attacked in error.] (see October 20th, 1914, and March 13th, 1915).

20th February

Orders issued for employment at the Dardanelles of the Australian and New Zealand troops in Egypt (see 16th, and December 1st, 1914).

22nd February

The Winter Battle in Masuria ends (see 4th).

First Battle of Przasnysz begins (see 27th).

Net barrage across North Channel (between Ireland and Scotland) established.

South African Northern Force begins advance from Swakopmund on Windhuk (see January 14th).

23rd February

Lemnos (Ægean) occupied by British marines (see March 7th).

24th February

The first British Territorial division (the North Midland) [Not to be confused with first division of the New Armies, for which see May 9th.] leaves England for France.

26th February

Liquid fire first used by the Germans on the Western front.

27th February

First Battle of Przasnysz ends (see 22nd).

S.S. "Dacia" intercepted and seized by French naval forces (see 11th, and March 22nd).

 

MARCH 1915

 

1st March

British blockade of German East Africa commences.

Joint declaration signed by Great Britain and France to prevent trade by or with Germany (see April 17th, 1916).

4th March

French Government decide to send Expeditionary Force to the Dardanelles (see February 16th and 20th, and April 25th).

First case of "indicator" nets aiding in the destruction of a German submarine ("U.-8" in Straits of Dover). [First experimented with in January 1915.]

Russian Government send circular telegram to Entente Governments laying claim to Constantinople (see 12th).

5th March

Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) proffers Greek fleet and troops to Entente for operations at the Dardanelles (see 6th, and February 15th and September 21st).

6th March

King of Greece refuses assent to policy of M. Venizelos (see 5th). M. Venizelos resigns office as Premier (see 9th, and August 22nd) (date of appointment October 19th, 1910).

7th March

Greek Government request explanation of British occupation of Lemnos (see 9th, and February 23rd).

9th March

British bombardment of Smyrna ends (see 5th and 15th).

M. Gounaris appointed Premier of Greece (see 6th, and August 22nd).

British Government reply to Greek Government as to occupation of Lemnos, pleading military necessity (see 7th and 20th).

10th March

Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins (see March 13th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

11th March

British "Retaliatory Order in Council" relating to detention of enemy goods and Proclamation extending list of "absolute" contraband issued (see 12th, and December 23rd, 1914).

12th March

Dutch Government issue warning that foreign merchant ships using Dutch flag will be detained (see January 30th and February 11th).

British Government notify Russian Government of their acceptance of Russian claims to Constantinople (see 4th, April 12th, 1915, and December 2nd, 1916).

French Government issue decrees similar to British Order in Council and Proclamation of the 11th March.

General Sir Ian Hamilton appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean (Dardanelles) Expeditionary Force (see 17th).

13th March

Battle of Neuve Chapelle ends (see March 10th).

Agreement signed by French and Belgian Governments suspending Franco-Belgian Convention of July 30th, 1891, regarding military service laws.

Swedish S.S. "Hanna" torpedoed without warning. First neutral ship actually sunk by German submarine (see 25th and 28th, and February 19th).

14th March

Light cruiser "Dresden", the last German cruiser left at sea, sunk by British warships in Chilean waters off Juan Fernandez (see December 8th, 1914, and April 26th, 1915).

Mushir ed Dowleh succeeds Mustaufi ul Mamalek as Persian Prime Minister (see August 19th, 1914, and April 26th, 1915).

15th March

British Squadron blockading Smyrna withdrawn (see 5th and 9th).

First merchant ship (S.S. "Blonde") attacked by aircraft.

17th March

French Government lodge claim with British Government to Syria and Cilicia (see April 26th, 1916).

General Sir Ian Hamilton takes over command of Dardanelles Expeditionary Force (see 12th, and October 15th).

First Battle of Champagne ends (see December 20th, 1914).

18th March

Allied Naval attack on the Dardanelles forts repulsed (see February 19th). French battleship "Bouvet" and British battleships "Irresistible" and "Ocean" sunk.

General Sir John Nixon appointed Cormmander-in-Chief British Forces in Mesopotamia (see April 9th).

British Government conclude agreement with American cotton interests that cotton should be contraband.

19th March

Dutch Government lodge protest against blockade policy of the Entente (see 11th and 12th).

20th March

British Government guarantee Greece eventual cession of Lemnos by Turkey (see 9th and July 25th).

21st March

First German airship raid on Paris takes place (see .August 30th, 1914, and January 29th, 1916).

25th March

General Liman von Sanders appointed to command Turco-German Forces, Dardanelles.

Dutch S.S. "Medea" captured by German submarine and sunk. (First neutral ship sunk after visit and search) (see 13th).

28th March

The first passenger ship (British S.S. "Falaba") sunk by a German submarine (see 13th, and October 20th, 1914).

29th March

British Government conclude agreement with American rubber interests that rubber should not be exported except to Great Britain.

 

APRIL 1915

 

3rd April

Russian Imperial ukase issued granting municipal self-government to Russian Poland (see August 14th, 1914 and November 5th, 1916).

Indecisive action in Black Sea between the "Goeben" and part of the Russian Fleet. Turkish cruiser "Medjidieh" sunk by mine off Odessa.

Dover Straits barrage completed.

7th April

First Indian units of Indian Expeditionary Force "G" (formed from Force "E") sail from Egypt for the Dardanelles (see December 31st).

8th April

Deportations and massacres of Armenians by order of the Turkish Government commence [Approximate date.] (see May 24th).

German armed merchant cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" interned at Newport News, Va. (see January 28th).

12th April

Battle of Shaiba (Mesopotamia) begins (see 14th).

First Allied advance on Yaunde (Cameroons) begins (see June 7th and 28th).

Entente Governments make offer to Greece of Smyrna and hinterland in return for immediate action against Turkey (see 14th, and January 24th).

French Government notify Russian Government of their acceptance of Russian claims to Constantinople (see March 12th).

14th April

Germans accuse French of using poison gas near Verdun (see 22nd).

Battle of Shaiba (Mesopotamia) ends (see 12th).

Greek Government reject Entente offer of Smyrna (see 12th).

British Secretary for the Colonies (Mr. Harcourt) states that Dominions will be consulted as to peace terms (see July 14th).

Japanese Government inform British Govermnent of German overtures for separate peace.

16th April

Urmia (North Persia) occupied by Turkish regular forces (see January 2nd and May 24th).

General Tighe succeeds General Wapshare in command of British Forces in East Africa (see December 4th, 1914, and February 19th, 1916).

17th April

Capture of Hill 60 (Ypres) (April 17th/22nd).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

Operations of Allied Force for capture of Garua (Cameroons) begin (see May 31st).

First Affair of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).

20th April

Armenian revolt at Van: Armenian defence of Van begins (see May 19th).

22nd April

Battles of Ypres, 1915, begin. Also known as The Second Battle of Ypres (see November 22nd, 1914 and May 25th, 1915).

First German gas clould attack on the Western Front (see 14th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

Battle Study: The Second Battle of Ypres 1915

The Second Battle of Ypres consisted of four battles starting with the surprise gas attack by the Germans in the Battle of Gravenstafel Ridge. The following three battles were counter-attacks by the allied troops to try to regain the ground lost to the Germans. The three battles were: The Battle of St Julien (See 24th), The Battle of Frezenburg Ridge (See 8th May) and The Battle of Bellewarde Ridge (See 24th May)

Battle of Gravenstafel Ridge begins (Ypres) (22nd/23rd).

Battle Study: Battle of Gravenstafel Ridge 1915, 5pm-midnight

23rd April

British blockade of the Cameroons commences (see February 29th, 1916).

24th April

Battle of St. Julien (Ypres) begins (see May 4th).

25th April

Allied Forces effect landing at the Dardanelles (25th/26th).

Bosporus forts shelled by Russian Black Sea Fleet (see March 27th).

Action of Gibeon (25th/26th) (German South-West Africa).

26th April

Secret agreement signed in London between Italian Government and the Entente for Italian co-operation in the war and declarations by which Italy adheres to the Pact of London (see September 5th, 1914, and May 4th, November 30th, and December 1st, 1915).

The last German raider overseas (armed merchant cruiser "Kron prinz Wilhelm") interned at Newport News (United States of America) (see March 14th).

French cruiser "Léon Gambetta" sunk by Austrian submarine in Straits of Otranto.

Mushir ed Doulch, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see March 14th and April 27th).

Muavin ed Douleh, Persian Foreign Minister, resigns (see February 20th and April 27th).

27th April

Ain ed Douleh appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 26th, and August 17th).

Mohtashem ed Douleh appointed Persian foreign Minister (see 26th, and March 5th, 1916).

28th April

First Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles) (see May 6th).

British Government conclude a treaty with the Idrisi for co-operation against the Turks (see January 31st).

30th April

Shavli (Baltic Provinces) occupied by German forces (see May 11th).

 

MAY 1915

 

1st May

Austro-German Spring Offensive in Galicia: Battle of Gorlice-Tarnow begins (see 5th).

Battle of Dilman (North Persia).

S.S. "Gulflight" torpedoed without warning: damaged, but reaches port. First United States ship attacked by German submarine (see February 19th and March 13th).

4th May

Italy denounces the Triple Alliance (see April 26th).

Battle of St. Julien (Ypres) ends (see April 24th).

5th May

Battle of Gorlice-Tarnow ends (see 1st).

6th May

Second Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles) begins (see 8th, and April 28th).

7th May

Libau (Baltic Provinces) taken by German forces (see April 30th).

S.S. "Lusitania" sunk by German submarine "U.-20" off Queenstown (see February 6th).

British Foreign Minister (Sir E. Grey) gives conditional guarantee to Serbian Minister of eventual cession of Bosnia and Herzegovina with "wide access to the Adriatic" (see August 15th and 30th).

Japan presents ultimatum to China demanding territorial concessions (see 9th).

8th May

Battle of Frezenberg Ridge (Ypres) begins (see 13th).

Second Battle of Krithia ends (see 6th and June 4th).

Battle of Sanok and Rzeszow begins (see 14th).

9th May

Allied Spring Offensive begins: Battle of Aubers Ridge.

Second Battle of Artois begins (see June 18th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

The leading division of the British New Armies leaves England for France (see August 21st, 1914 and February 24th, 1915).

President Wilson, in a speech, defines United States policy in regard to the "Lusitania" outrage (see 7th).

Chinese Government yield to Japanese demands (see 7th and 25th).

10th May

Naval Convention signed between Great Britain, France, and Italy.

11th May

Shavli evacuated by German forces (see April 30th).

13th May

Battle of Frezenberg Ridge (Ypres) ends (see May 8th).

Windhuk (German South-West Africa) occupied by South African Northern Force.

H.M.S. "Goliath" sunk by Turkish destroyer in the Dardanelles.

Signor Salandra, Italian Premier, tenders his resignation (see 16th and October 30th, 1914).

Baron Sonnino, Italian Foreign Minister, tenders his resignation (see May 16th, and November 3rd, 1914).

14th May

Jaroslaw taken by Austro-German forces (see September 21st, 1914).

Last meeting of British War Council (see August 5th, 1914 and June 7th, 1915).

General da Castro, Portuguese Premier, resigns (see 15th and January 25th).

Battle of Sanok and Rzeszow ends (see 8th).

15th May

Battle of Festubert begins (see 25th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

Senhor J. Pinheiro Chagas appointed Portuguese Premier (see 14th and June 19th).

Lord Fisher, First Sea Lord, Great Britain, tenders his resignation (see 28th and October 30th, 1914).

16th May

Battle of the San (Galicia) begins (see 23rd).

Signor Salandra reappointed Italian Premier on reconstruction of Cabinet, with Baron Sonnino as Foreign Minister (see 13th and June 11th, 1916).

18th May

Battles of Stryj and Drohobycz begin (see June 3rd).

19th May

Van (Armenia) taken by Russian forces. Armenian garrison relieved (see April 20th and August 3rd, 1915 and April 5th, 1918).

21st May

Russian Expeditionary Force to West Persia lands at Enzeli (see February 17th, 1918).

23rd May

Battle of the San ends (see 16th).

Italian Government order Mobilisation and declare war against Austria.

General Cadorna appointed Commander-in-Chief [Officially designated " Chief of Staff," the King being the nominal Commander-in-Chief.] of Italian Armies in the Field (see November 7th, 1917).

24th May

Battle of Bellewaerde Ridge (Ypres) (24th/25th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

Battle of Przemysl begins (see June 3rd and 11th).

Battle of the Stryj (Galicia) begins (see June 11th).

Italian forces cross Austrian frontier (midnight 24th/25th).

Germany severs diplomatic relations with Italy [For the purposes of the Treaty of Versailles it was subsequently assumed that this rupture took place on the 27th, which date was accepted as that of the commencement of Italy's belligerence against Germany.] (see august 28th, 1916).

Urmia (North Persia) retaken by Russian forces (see April 16th).

Entente Governments declare that they will hold Turkish Ministers personally responsible for the Armenian massacres (see April 8th).

25th May

Battles of Ypres 1915 end (see April 22nd, 1915 and July 31st, 1917).

Battle of Festubert ends (see 15th).

H.M.S. "Triumph" sunk by submarine off the Dardanelles.

Italian fleet commences operations in the Adriatic (see 26th).

Coalition Ministry formed in Great Britain by Mr. Asquith (see December 11th, 1916).

Treaty signed between China and Japan concerning Shantung Province (see 7th and 9th).

Treaty signed between China and Japan concerning South Manchuria and Inner Mongolia (see 7th and 9th).

26th May

Italian Government announce blockade of Austro-Hungarian coast.

British battle squadron concentrates at Malta prior to joining Italian fleet in Adriatic (see 27th).

27th May

British squadron joins Italian fleet in the Adriatic (see 26th).

H.M.S. "Majestic" sunk by submarine at the Dardanelles.

Mr. Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain, resigns (appointed October 24th, 1911) (see 28th).

British minelayer "Princess Irene" destroyed by internal explosion in Sheerness harbour.

28th May

Mr Arthur Balfour appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain (see 27th, and December 11th, 1916).

Sir Henry Jackson appointed First Sea Lord, Great Britain (see 15th, and December 3rd, 1916).

Dr. Joaquim T. Braga elected President of Portugal (see 29th, and October 5th).

29th May

Valona formally occupied by Italian forces (see December 26th, 1914).

Dr. Manoel Arriaga, Portuguese President, resigns (appointed August 24th, 1911) (see 28th).

30th May

Affair of Sphinxhaven (Lake Nyassa). British command of the lake secured.

31st May

Siege of Garua (Cameroons) begins (see April 18th and June 10th).

First German airship raid on London area (see January 19th 1915, October 19th, 1917 and august 5th, 1918).

Second action of Qurna (Mesopotamia).

 

JUNE 1915

 

2nd June

Blockade of coast of Asia Minor announced by British Government.

3rd June

Przemysl retaken by Austro-German forces (see March 22nd and May 24th).

Amara (Mesopotamia) captured by British forces.

First meeting in Paris of Allied Conference on Economic War (see February 5th, 1915 and June 14th, 1916).

Act Passed in British Parliament empowering Customs to compel all exports to Holland to be consigned to the Netherlands Oversea Trust (see November 23rd, 1914 and December 7th, 1915).

San Marino declares war on Austria-Hungary.

Battles of Stryj and Drohobycz end (see May 18th).

4th June

Third Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles).

5th June

First Conference of British and French Ministers to co-ordinate war policy and strategy held at Calais.

7th June

German airship "L.Z.-37" destroyed in mid-air by Lieut. Warneford, R.N.A.S., near Ghent (first occasion of airship successfully attacked by aeroplane).

Russian and Chinese Governments conclude agreement respecting Mongolia (see May 25th).

First meeting of Dardanelles Committee of the British Cabinet [Under this title the War Council (see August 5th, 1914, and May 14th, 1915) exercised its functions during the critical period of the Dardanelles campaign.] (see May 14th and October 30th).

Allied Commander-in-Chief in the Cameroons decides to abandon the advance on Yaunde (see 28th and April 12th).

8th June

Stanislau recaptured by Austrian forces (see March 4th, 1915, and August 10th, 1916).

9th June

Monfalcone (Isonzo) taken by Italian forces.

10th June

Garua (Cameroons) capitulates to the Anglo-French force under General Cunliffe (see flay 31st).

Battle of Zydaczow begins (see 22nd).

11th June

Battle of Przemysl ends (see 3rd and May 24th).

Battle of the Stryj ends (see May 24th).

12th June

Battle of Mosciuska and Lubaczow begins (see 15th).

14th June

Turkish Attack on Perim (14th/15th).

15th June

Battle of Mosciuska and Lubaczow ends (see 12th).

17th June

Third Battle of Lemberg begins (see 22nd).

18th June

Second Battle of Artois ends (see May 9th and September 25th).

19th June

South African forces begin advance on Otavifontein (see July 1st).

Dr. José de Castro succeeds Senhor J. P. Chagas as Portuguese Premier (see May 15th and November 29th).

22nd June

Third Battle of Lemberg ends: city retaken by the Austrian forces (see 17th and September 3rd, 1914, and November 23rd, 1918).

Battle of Zydaczow ends (see 10th).

24th June

Mr. Lansing succeeds Mr Bryan as United States Secretary of State.

26th June

San Giovanni de Medua (Albania) occupied by Montenegrin forces (see July 29th).

General Sukhomlinov, Russian Minister for War, removed from office (appointed in 1909); succeeded by General Polivanov (see March 29th, 1916).

27th June

British advance up the Euphrates begins (see July 25th).

Battle of the Gnila-Lipa begins (see 29th).

28th June

Action of Gully Ravine (Dardanelles) begins (see July 2nd).

Operations of the first advance on Yaunde (Cameroons) end (see 7th).

Ngaundere (Cameroons) captured by the allied Northern Force.

29th June

First Battle of the Isonzo begins (see July 7th).

Battle of the Gnila-Lipa ends (see 27th).

 

JULY 1915

 

1st July

Second Battle of Krasnik begins (see 19th).

Otavifontein (German South-West Africa) captured by South African forces (see June 19th).

2nd July

Action of Gully Ravine ends (see June 28th).

Naval action in the Baltic between Russian and German squadrons off Gottland. German minelayer "Albatross" driven ashore.

Munitions of War Act, 1915, becomes law in Great Britain.

Ministry of Munitions formed in Great Britain.

4th July

Lahej (South Arabia) taken by Turkish forces (4th/5th).

Durazzo occupied by Serbian forces (see 17th and October 4th, 1914).

7th July

First Battle of the Isonzo ends (see June 29th).

Italian cruiser "Amalfi" sunk by Austrian submarine in the Adriatic.

9th July

German South-West Africa capitulates to General Botha (see September 19th, 1914).

11th July

German light cruiser "Königsberg" destroyed in Rufiji River, German East Africa, by British monitors (see September 20th and October 31st, 1914).

12th July

British residency at Bushire (South Persia) attacked by Tangistani tribesmen (see August 8th).

13th July

Great Austro-German Offensive on Eastern front begins.

Battle of the Narew and Bobr begins (see 26th).

Second Battle of Przasnysz begins (see 17th).

Battles of Maslomencze and Grabowiec begin (see 18th).

14th July

A Dominion Premier (Sir R. Borden, Canada) for the first time attends meeting of the British Cabinet (see April 14th).

Sherif of Mecca opens direct negotiations with British Government for co-operation against the Turks (see October 31st, 1914, and October 24th, 1915).

Battle of Schaulen begins.

15th July

National Registration Act becomes law in Great Britain (see August 15th).

16th July

Battle of Krasnostav begins (see 18th).

17th July

Durazzo evacuated by the Serbian forces at request of Italian Government (see 4th and August 31st).

Treaty of alliance signed at Sofia between Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and Turkey. Albania to be ceded to Bulgaria in return for Bulgarian participation in war.

Battle of Sienno (one day).

Second Battle of Przasnysz ends (see 13th).

18th July

Second Battle of the Isonzo begins (see August 10th).

Italian cruiser "Giuseppe Garibaldi" sunk by Austrian submarine in the Adriatic.

Battles of Maslomencze and Grabowiec end (see 13th).

Battle of Krasnostav ends (see 16th).

19th July

Second Battle of Krasnik ends (see 1st).

Battles of Hruhieszow and Wojslawice begin (see 30th).

20th July

Battle of Le Linge (Vosges mountains) begins (see 15th October).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

Second Battle of Ivangorod begins (see 21st).

21st July

Ivangorod (Poland) invested by Austro-German forces (see August 5th).

Second Battle of Ivangorod ends (see 20th).

22nd July

Bukoba, on Victoria Nyanza (German East Africa), captured by British forces (22nd/23rd).

24th July

Rozan and Pultusk (North Poland) stormed by German forces.

25th July

Nasiriya (Mesopotamia) taken by British forces (see June 27th).

British Government guarantee to Greece eventual cession of Mitylene by Turkey (see March 20th).

26th July

Pelagosa Island, in Adriatic, occupied by Italian forces.

Battle of the Narew and Bobr ends (see 13th).

29th July

Entente Governments warn Montenegro that they will not recognise her occupation of Albanian territory (see June 26th).

Establishment of the East Persia Cordon (Anglo-Russian) begins (see October 7th).

Battle of Biskupice begins (see 30th).

30th July

The Pope sends appeal for peace to belligerent Governments (see November 5th, 1914 and August 1st, 1917).

Battles of Hruhieszow and Wojslawice end (see 19th).

Battle of Biskupice ends (see 29th).

Battle of Kupischki begins.

31st July

Battle of Strelcze (one day).

 

AUGUST 1915

 

1st August

Constantinople harbour raided by British submarine.

3rd August

Van (Armenia) evacuated by the Russian forces (see 5th, and May 19th).

5th August

Warsaw occupied by German forces (see July 13th).

Ivangorod taken by Austro-German forces (see July 21st).

Van occupied by Turkish forces (see 3rd).

6th August

Operations of the landing at Suvla (Dardanelles) begin (see 15th).

Battle of Sari Bair (Dardanelles) begins (see 9th and 10th).

Dr. Machado Guimarães elected Portuguese President (see October 5th, 1915, and December 11th, 1917).

Bulgarian Government negotiate fresh loan for 400,000,000 francs with Austro-German banks (see February 3rd).

Agreement concluded between Japan and China substituting Japanese authority for German in Tsingtau customs (see November 7th, 1914).

8th August

Bushire (South Persia) occupied by British forces (see July 12th and September 9th).

Turkish battleship "Barbarousse-Hairedine" sunk by British submarine "E.-11" in the Dardanelles.

German naval attack on Riga begins (see 21st).

9th August

Decisive day of Battle of Sari Bair (see 6th and 10th).

Viscount Kato, Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, resigns (previously appointed April 16th, 1914) (see 10th).

10th August

Battle of Sari Bair ends (see 6th and 9th).

Second Battle of the Isonzo ends (see July 18th).

German airship "L.-12" extensively damaged by British aircraft off Ostend.

Marquis Okuma appointed Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (ad interim) (see 9th, and September 21st).

12th August

First ship sunk by torpedo from British seaplane (Dardanelles).

13th August

H.M.T. "Royal Edward" sunk in the Ægean by German submarine. [First transport so lost.]

15th August

Operations of the landing at Suvla end (see 6th and 21st).

Entente Governments make conditional offer of territorial acquisitions to Serbia (see 30th and May 7th).

National Register taken in Great Britain (see July 15th).

16th August

Lowca and Harrington, near Whitehaven (Cumberland), shelled by German submarine.

17th August

Kowno stormed by German forces (17th/18th).

Ain ed Douleh, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see 18th and April 27th).

18th August

Mustaufi ul Mamalek again appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 17th. and December 24th).

19th August

German battle cruiser "Moltke" torpedoed by British submarine "E.-1" in Gulf of Riga.

British submarine "E.-13" attacked by German warships while aground in Danish waters.

British S.S. "Arabic" sunk by German submarine.

H.M.S. "Baralong" (special service ship) destroys German submarine "U.-27"

20th August

Novo-Georgievsk (Poland) stormed by German forces.

21st August

Battle of Scimitar Hill (Suvla) (see 15th).

Italy declares war on Turkey.

First authenticated case of German submarine firing on a ship's crew in open boats (British S.S. "Ruel").

German naval attack on Riga discontinued (see 8th).

22nd August

Osovets (North Poland) stormed by German forces.

M. Venizelos again appointed Premier of Greece in succession to M. Gounaris (see March 6th and 9th and October 5th).

25th August

Brest-Litovsk (Poland) taken by German forces (25th/26th).

26th August

Byelostok (Poland) taken by German forces.

30th August

British Foreign Minister (Sir E. Grey) informs M. Supilo that, provided Serbia agreed, the Allies could guarantee the eventual freedom and self-determination of Bosnia, Herzegovina, South Dalmatia, Slavonia and Croatia (see 15th and May 7th).

31st August

Durazzo reoccupied by Serbian forces (see July 17th and December 6th).

 

SEPTEMBER 1915

 

1st September

German Government inform United States Government that United States demands for limitation of submarine activity are accepted.

Ruad Island, off Syrian coast, occupied by French forces.

3rd September

Grodno captured by German forces (2nd/3rd).

5th September

The Tsar supersedes the Grand Duke Nicholas in supreme command of the Russian Armies with General Alexeiev as Chief of Staff [Though nominally Chief of Staff, General Alexeiev was virtually Commander-in-Chief and performed the duties of that office till the Tsar's abdication on March 15th, 1917 and continued as Commander-in-Chief thereafter without further appointment.] (see 8th, August 3rd, 1914 and March 15th and June 4th, 1917).

Action of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).

7th September

Russian counter-offensive in Galicia. Battle of Tarnopol begins (see 16th).

8th September

The Grand Duke Nicholas appointed Viceroy of the Caucasus (see 5th).

Second Allied Attack on Mora (Cameroons) (8th/9th).

9th September

Battle of Dvinsk begins (see November 1st).

Battle of Vilna begins (see October 2nd).

Bushire (South Persia) again attacked by tribesmen (see August 8th).

Turco-Bulgarian Frontier Convention signed at Dimotika.

United States Government request recall of Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, Dr. Dumba (appointed to United States, March 1913) (see 28th).

16th September

Pinsk taken by German forces.

Battle of Tarnopol ends (see 7th).

18th September

Vilna taken by German forces (see 9th).

21st September

Bulgarian Government order partial mobilisation (see 22nd).

Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) asks for guarantee of 150,000 British and French troops as condition for Greek intervention (see 24th, and March 5th).

Viscount Ishii succeeds Marquis Okuma as Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (see August 10th, 1915 and October 9th, 1916.

22nd September

"Dede Agatch Agreement" concluded between Turkey and Bulgaria rectifying Turkish frontier in favour of Bulgaria.

Bulgarian Government order general mobilisation for 25th.

Second Advance on Yaunde (Cameroons) begins (see January 1st, 1916).

23rd September

Greek Government order precautionary mobilisation.

24th September

French and British Governments inform Greek Government that they are prepared to send troops requested (see 21st, 27th and 28th).

25th September

Allied Autumn Offensive begins:- Battle of Loos begins (see October 8th).

Third Battle of Artois begins (see June 18th and October 15th).

Second Battle of Champagne begins (see March 17th and November 6th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1915 Battles for a Breakthrough

General Sir J. Wolfe Murray, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Great Britain, resigns (see 26th, and October 26th, 1914).

Bulgarian mobilisation begins (see 22nd).

Serbian Government give undertaking to Greek Government to cede Doiran and Gevgeli eventually to Greece, and not to claim Strumitsa.

26th September

Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Great Britain (see 25th, and January 24th and December 22nd).

27th September

Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) obtains secret consent of King Constantine to proposed Entente expedition to Salonika (see 24th and 28th).

Malian battleship "Benedetto Brin" destroyed by internal explosion in harbour at Brindisi.

28th September

Battle of Kut, 1915 (Mesopotamia).

Dr. Dumba, Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, recalled from United States of America (see 9th).

Greek Government formally refuse French and British "offer" of the 24th (see 27th, and October 2nd).

British and Russian Governments agree to request of Persian Government for a monthly subvention.

30th September

Lord Derby assumes control of recruiting in Great Britain (see December 11th, 1916).

 

OCTOBER 1915

 

1st October

Beginning of period [Approximate date] in which the Germans obtained mastery in the air on the Western front (due to the Fokker machine) (see April 1st, 1916).

2nd October

Battle of Vilna ends (see September 9th).

Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) asks British and French Governments to land troops at Salonika as soon as possible (see 3rd and 5th, and September 28th).

3rd October

Allied troops arrive at Salonika: Greek Government protest against a landing (see 2nd, 5th and 6th).

First German merchant vessel (S.S. "Livonia") sunk by British submarine in the Baltic.

4th October

Entente Powers send ultimatum to Bulgaria (see 5th and 13th).

5th October

French and British forces land at Salonika (see 3rd).

King of Greece refuses to support policy of Premier (M. Venizelos) (see 2nd, and September 27th).

M. Venizelos again resigns (see 6th, and August 22nd, 1915, and June 26th, 1917).

Russia severs diplomatic relations with Bulgaria (see 4th and 19th).

Dr. Machado Guimarães succeeds Dr. J. Braga as Portuguese President (see May 28th, and August 6th, 1915 and December 11th, 1917).

6th October

Final Austro-German invasion of Serbia begins (see December 15th, 1914).

M. Zaimis appointed Greek Premier (see 5th, and November 5th).

King of Greece gives assurance to British Minister that Greece will maintain neutrality, but Greek mobilisation (see September 23rd) and Allied disembarkation at Salonika will proceed (see 3rd, 5th and 8th).

7th October

Austro-German forces effect passage of the Save and Danube (see 6th).

Birjand (East Persia) occupied by British forces (see July 29th).

8th October

Battle of Loos ends (see September 25th).

New Greek Government (see 6th) announce policy of armed neutrality.

9th October

Belgrade taken by Austrian forces (see December 15th, 1914 and November 1st, 1918).

Second Affair of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).

10th October

Greek Government reject Serbian claim for help under Serbo-Greek Treaty of 1912.

11th October

Hostilities commence between Bulgarian and Serbian forces (see 14th).

Semendria (Serbia) taken by Austrian forces (see 6th).

12th October

Miss Edith Cavell shot in Brussels by order of a German court martial.

13th October

Most severe airship raid on East Coast of England and London; casualties 200 (see January 19th and May 31st, 1915, October 19th, 1917 and August 5th, 1918).

Great Britain severs diplomatic relations with Bulgaria (see 4th and 15th).

Hostilities commence between French and Bulgarian forces in Macedonia.

M. Delcassé, French Foreign Minister, resigns; M. Viviani succeeds temporarily (see 29th and 30th).

14th October

Bulgaria and Serbia declare war on one another (see 4th and 11th).

15th October

Third Battle of Artois ends (see September 25th).

Great Britain declares "state of war" with Bulgaria (see 13th).

Montenegro declares "state of war" with Bulgaria.

Rumanian Government refuse to aid Serbia (see January 25th).

Vranje (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see October 5th, 1918).

General Sir Charles Monro appointed to succeed Sir Ian Hamilton as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 17th and 28th, and March 17th).

16th October

France declares "state of war" with Bulgaria (see 4th and 15th).

British Government offer Cyprus to Greece if she will support Serbia (see 20th, and January 24th).

Entente Governments proclaim blockade of Ægean coast of Bulgaria.

17th October

General Sir William Birdwood takes over temporary command of Mediterranean Expeditionary Force from Sir Ian Hamilton (see 15th and 28th).

18th October

Third Battle of the Isonzo begins (see November 3rd).

19th October

Ishtip (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 25th, 1918).

Russia and Italy declare war on Bulgaria (see 4th and 5th).

Japan declares adherence to the Pact of London (see September 5th, 1914 and November 30th, 1915).

20th October

Greek Government reject British offer of Cyprus (see 16th).

21st October

Dede Agatch (Bulgaria) bombarded by Allied squadron.

Veles taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 25th, 1918).

22nd October

Kumanovo and Üsküb (Skoplje) taken by Bulgarian forces.

Shabatz taken by Austrian forces.

23rd October

German cruiser "Prinz Adalbert" sunk by British submarine "E.-8" in the Baltic.

24th October

Negotin, on River Vardar, taken by Bulgarian forces.

First Action of Krivolak (Macedonia).

British Government in letter to Sherif of Mecca define territorial limits of proposed Arab State (see July 14th, 1915 and June 5th, 1916).

28th October

H.M.S. "Argyll" wrecked on east coast of Scotland.

Lieut.-General Sir Bryan Mahon appointed General Officer Commanding British Forces, Balkans (see May 9th, 1916).

General Sir Charles Monro assumes command of Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 15th, 17th, and November 4th).

29th October

M. Viviani, French Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns (date of appointment as Premier June 14th, 1914) (see 13th and 30th).

M. Millerand, French Minister for War, resigns (see 30th, and August 27th, 1914).

30th October

Third Allied attack on Mora (Cameroons) begins (see November 4th).

Second Action of Krivolak (Macedonia).

M. Briand succeeds M. Viviani as French Premier and Foreign Minister (see 29th, and March 17th, 1917).

General Galliéni appointed French Minister for War (see 29th, and March 16th, 1916).

Last meeting of Dardanelles Committee of the British Cabinet (see June 7th and November 3rd).

 

NOVEMBER 1915

 

1st November

Kragujevatz (North Serbia) taken by Austro-German forces (30th/1st).

Battle of Dvinsk ends (see September 9th).

2nd November

British Premier (Mr Asquith) declares Serbian independence to be an essential object of the war.

Kasvin (West Persia) occupied by a Russian force.

3rd November

Third Battle of the Isonzo ends (see October 18th).

Serbian Government leave Nish (see 23rd, and July 25th, 1914).

First meeting of newly-constituted War Committee of British Cabinet to replace the Dardanelles Committee (see October 30th, 1915, and December 1st, 1916).

Port and Transit Executive Committee formed in Great Britain (see 10th).

4th November

Third Allied attack on Mora abandoned (see October 30th).

Banyo (Cameroons) attacked by General Cunliffe's Allied force (see 6th).

Lord Kitchener leaves England for the Dardanelles (see 10th).

General Sir Charles Monro appointed to command Salonika Force. Sir William Birdwood to command Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 25th, and October 15th, 17th, and 28th).

5th November

Nish taken by Bulgarian forces (see 3rd, and October 11th, 1918).

Battle of Kachanik (Serbia) begins (see 8th).

M. Zaimis, Greek Prime Minister, resigns (see 6th, and October 6th).

German airship "L.Z.-39" destroyed near Grodno.

6th November

Second Battle of Champagne ends (see September 25th).

Sollum (Western Egypt) attacked by German submarine (see 14th). [Egyptian coastguard cruiser "Abbas" sunk and "Nur el Bahr" disabled.]

Banyo captured by Allied force (see 4th).

M. Skouloudhis appointed Greek Premier (see 5th, and June 21st, 1916).

7th November

German cruiser "Undine" sunk by British submarine "E.-19"

Italian S.S. "Ancona " sunk by Austrian submarine.

8th November

Battle of Kachanik ends (see 5th).

Entente loan (£1,600,000) to Greece concluded (see July 20th, 1916).

10th November

Fourth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see December 10th).

Indian Corps begins to leave France for Mesopotamia (see October 19th, 1914).

Lord kitchener arrives at the Dardanelles (see 4th).

Ship Licensing Committee formed in Great Britain: Order in Council prohibits voyages between foreign ports except under licence (see February 15th, 1916).

Requisitioning (Carriage of Foodstuffs) Committee formed in Great Britain: Order in Council authorises requisition of ships for carriage of foodstuffs (see November 3rd, 1917).

11th November

First British advance on Baghdad begins (see 22nd).

14th November

Senussi commence hostilities against British by attacking Egyptian post at Sollum (see 6th and 23rd).

15th November

Representatives of Central Powers leave Teheran (Persia) on approach of Russian forces.

16th November

Babuna Pass and Prilep (South Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 23rd, 1918).

17th November

Anglo-French Conference held in Paris to discuss aid to Serbia and Dardanelles expeditions. Project approved in principle to appoint Council of War to co-ordinate Allied action (see December 29th).

British hospital ship "Anglia" sunk by mine off Dover.

20th November

Novi Bazar taken by Austrian forces (see October 14th, 1918).

22nd November

Battle of Ctesiphon (Mesopotamia) begins (see 25th).

General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien appointed Commander-in-Chief of British forces in East Africa [Did not take over command owing to illness.] (see January 31st, 1916).

23rd November

Rovereto (Trentino) taken by Italian forces.

Mitrovitza and Pristina (Serbia) taken by Austro-German forces (see October 10th, 1918).

Serbian Government leave Prizren for Scutari (Shkodra) (see 3rd, and December 3rd).

British military operations against the Senussi commence (see December 13th, 1915 and February 8th, 1917): Sollum post evacuated (see 14th).

Entente Powers send Note to Greek Government demanding non interference with Allied troops, and guaranteeing eventual restoration of occupied Greek territory (see 24th, and October 3rd).

British Government conclude preliminary agreement with the Netherlands Overseas Trust for rationing of Holland (see June 3rd, 1915 and June 30th, 1916).

24th November

Greek Government accept Entente demands of the 23rd.

Field-Marshal von der Goltz (see December 10th, 1914 and April 19th, 1916) takes command of Turkish forces in Mesopotamia.

Danish merchants and manufacturers conclude agreement with the British Government to restrict supplies to Germany.

25th November

British retreat from Ctesiphon to Kut al Amara begins (see 22nd, and December 3rd).

M. Albert Thomas announces arrangements completed for inter Allied organisation of munitions.

General Sir Charles Monro appointed Commander-in-Chief reconstituted Mediterranean Expeditionary Force with Sir William Birdwood General Officer Commanding Dardanelles Army (see 4th and January 9th, 1916).

29th November

Dr. A. Augusto da Costa succeeds Dr. J, de Castro as Portuguese Premier (see June 19th, 1915, and March 15th, 1916).

30th November

Serbian retreat through Albania begins (see January 15th, 1916).

Formal signature of the Pact of London by Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Italy (see September 5th, 1914; April 26th, 1915; and October 19th, 1915).

 

DECEMBER 1915

 

1st December

Prizren (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see October 11th, 1918).

Italy announces her adherence to the Pact of London (see November 30th).

2nd December

Monastir (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see November 19th, 1916).

French retreat from Serbia to Salonika begins: Krivolak evacuated.

3rd December

British forces, retreating from Ctesiphon, reach Kut (see 7th, and November 25th),

General Joffre Chief of French General Staff from July 28th, 1911, appointed Commander-in-Chief French Armies. Appointment of Chief of General Staff lapses (see April 29th, 1917).

Serbian Government and military headquarters set up at Scutari (Shkodra) (see November 23rd, 1915, and January 15th, 1916).

4th December

United States Government request recall of German attachés Captains Boy-Ed and Von Papen (see 10th).

5th December

Action of Demir Kapu (5th/6th) in French retreat from Serbia.

Kut placed in state of defence (see 3rd and 7th).

6th December

Durazzo bombarded by Austrian squadron (see 20th, and August 31st).

lpek (Montenegro) taken by Austro-German forces (see October 14th, 1918).

British Government put economic pressure on Greece by making the "export restrictions" apply to that country (see 13th).

7th December

Siege of Kut begins (see 3rd, and January 4th and April 29th, 1916).

Actions of Kosturino (7th/8th). British retreat from Macedonia begins.

Agreement concluded between French Government and Netherlands Oversea Trust (see November 23rd, 1914, and November 23rd, 1915).

8th December

Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac ordered (see 19th and 20th).

Debra and Okhrida (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces.

9th December

General Castelnau appointed Chief of Staff to General Joffre (see 3rd).

General Sarrail demands withdrawal of Greek troops from Salonika (see 11th).

10th December

Fourth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see November 10th).

German Government recall from United States attachés Von Papen and Boy-Ed (see 4th, and January 15th, 1916).

11th December

Doiran and Gevgeli (South Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 22nd, 1918).

Greek Government refuse Entente demand for withdrawal of Greek troops from Salonika (see 9th).

Yuan-Shih-Kai accepts throne of China (see March 22nd, 1916 and June 6th, 1916).

13th December

Affair of the Wadi Senab (11th/13th) (see November 23rd, 1915, and February 26th, 1916).

British Government order partial relaxation of economic pressure on Greece (see 6th).

14th December

Hamadan (Western Persia) occupied by Russian forces (see August 10th, 1916).

Bulgarian and Greek General Staffs conclude agreement establishing temporary neutral zone along Greek frontier.

15th December

The last Allied forces in Macedonia withdrawn into Greek territory (see 7th and September 19th, 1916).

Qasr-i-Shirin (Western Persia) occupied by Turkish forces (see May 7th, 1916).

Field-Marshal Sir John French resigns as Commander-in-Chief of British armies in France (see 19th, and August 4th, 1914, and May 5th, 1918).

17th December

German light cruiser "Bremen" sunk by British submarine in the Baltic.

19th December

Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac begun (see 8th and 20th).

General Sir Douglas Haig succeeds Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies in France (see 15th, and January 1st, 1917).

Bulgarian and Greek General Staffs conclude agreement establishing temporary neutral zone along Greek frontier.

20th December

Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac completed (see 8th, 19th and 28th). Durazzo occupied by Italian forces (see 6th, and February 27th, 1916).

22nd December

Lieut.-General Sir W. Robertson resigns as Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 23rd, and January 25th) and is succeeded by Lieut.-General L. E. Kiggell (see January 27th, 1918).

Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, resigns (see 23rd, and September 26th, 1915, and March 19th, 1916).

23rd December

British naval operations on Lake Tanganyika begin (see 26th).

General Sir W. Robertson appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff (see 22nd, and February 18th, 1918).

"Trading with the Enemy (Extension of Powers) Act, 1915" (beginning of "Black List" policy), comes into force in Great Britain (see January 26th and July 28th, 1916).

24th December

Mustaufi ul Mamalek (Persian Prime Minister) resigns (see 25th, and August 18th).

25th December

Turkish Christmas Eve Attack on Kut (24th/25th).

Affair of the Wadi Majid (Western Egypt).

Kangavar (Western Persia) occupied by a Russian force.

Prince Firman Firma appointed Prime Minister of Persia (see 24th, and March 5th, 1916).

26th December

German raider "Moewe" sails from Bremen on first cruise (see February 1st, 1916).

Naval action on Lake Tanganyika: German gunboat "Kingani" captured by H.M.S. "Mimi" and "Toutou" (see 23rd, and February 9th, 1916).

Treaty concluded between British Government and Ibn Sa'ud, Emir of Nejd (see July 18th, 1916).

28th December

Evacuation of remainder of Gallipoli Peninsula ordered (see 20th, and January 8th, 1916).

29th December

Durazzo raided by Austrian naval light forces: latter brought to action in Southern Adriatic.

Draft rules approved for Inter-Allied Council of War (see November 17th).

30th December

Consuls of Central Powers at Salonika arrested and deported by order of General Sarrail, Commanding French troops.

H.M.S. "Natal" destroyed by internal explosion in Cromarty harbour.

31st December

Last units of Indian Expeditionary Force "G" leave the Dardanelles to amalgamate with Indian Expeditionary Force "E" in Egypt (see April 7th).