Centenary of World War 1 (1914-1918)
|WWI Centenary||Australian War Memorial|
|1915 - Timeline||The Australian Light Horse Association|
|1916 - Timeline||History of the Great War|
|1917 - Timeline|
|1918 - Timeline|
H.M.S. "Formidable" sunk by German submarine in the English Channel.
Battle of Soissons begins (see 14th).
Rumanian Government negotiate loan of £5,000,000 in Great Britain.
Last rebels in the Transvaal captured (see December 28th, 1914).
British War Council resolve that the Admiralty should prepare for a naval expedition in February against the Dardanelles (see 28th, and December 30th, 1914).
Baron Burian succeeds Count Berchtold [Appointed February 19th, 1912.] as Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign affairs (see December 22nd, 1916).
Battle of Soissons ends (see 8th).
First airship raid on England (see December 21st, 1914, and August 5th, 1918).
Lieut.-General von Falkenhayn [Appointed in 1906.] succeeded as German Minister for War by Lieut.-General Wild von Hohenborn (see October 30th, 1916). General von Falkenhayn remains Chief of the General Staff (see August 29th, 1916).
Action of the Dogger Bank. German cruiser "Blücher" sunk.
German airship "P.L.-19" brought down near Libau.
Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray resigns as Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 25th, and August 4th, 1914).
Lieut.-General Sir W. Robertson resigns as Quartermaster-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 25th and 27th, and August 4th, 1914).
British Government offer Greek Government concessions in Asia Minor in return for help to Serbia (see 25th and 29th, April 12th, 1915, and December 5th, 1914).
Lieut.-General Sir W. Robertson appointed Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 24th, and December 22nd).
Turkish advance on Egypt through Sinai begins (see February 2nd).
Entente Governments agree to hold "Pact of London" applicable to war with Turkey (see September 5th, 1914).
Lieut.-General Sir R. C. Maxwell appointed Quartermaster-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 24th, and December 22nd, 1917).
British Government definitely decide to make naval attack on the Dardanelles (see 13th).
United States S.V. "William P. Frye" sunk by German armed merchant cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" (see August 6th, 1914, and April 8th, 1915).
Walney Island battery (Barrow-in-Furness) shelled by German submarine (first operation of German submarines in the Irish Sea).
Greek Government decline to intervene on behalf of Serbia (see 24th and 25th, and February 15th).
British Admiralty warn British merchant vessels to fly neutral or no ensigns in vicinity of British Isles (see February 6th, 7th and 11th).
British Admiralty issue orders forbidding neutral fishing vessels to use British ports.
Turkish advance-guards reach the Suez Canal (see 3rd, and January 26th).
Actions on the Suez Canal begin (see 4th).
The Winter Battle in Masuria (East Prussia) begins (see 22nd).
Actions on the Suez Canal end (see 3rd February). Turkish forces retreat into Sinai.
German Government announce that submarine blockade of Great Britain will begin on 18th February.
British, French and Russian Governments agree to pool their financial resources (see June 3rd).
British S.S. "Lusitania" arrives at Liverpool flying United States flag (see 7th, January 30th and May 7th).
British Foreign Office issue statement justifying use of neutral flag at sea (see 6th and 11th February, and January 30th).
1st Canadian Division crosses from England to France (9th/11th) (see October 15th 1914).
United States Government send Note to British Government deprecating use of neutral flag (see 7th).
S.S. "Dacia" sails from United States for Bremen (Germany) with cargo of cotton (see February 27th, and January 6th).
Entente Governments suggest to Greek Government that Greece should intervene in support of Serbia, and promise military support at Salonika (see January 29th and March 5th).
Mutiny of the 5th Light Infantry (Indian Army) at Singapore.
Agreement concluded between Great Britain and France supplementing "prize" convention of November 9th, 1914.
Oyem (Cameroons) occupied by French forces.
British Government decide to send a division (the 29th) to the Dardanelles (see 20th, and April 25th).
British Government extend prohibition of "trading with the enemy" to territories in British, enemy, or friendly occupation.
German airship "L.-3" stranded and destroyed off Fanö, and "L.-4" destroyed near Blaavands Huk (Denmark).
German submarine blockade of Great Britain begins (see February 4th).
Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles forts commences (see March 18th).
Norwegian S.S. "Belridge" torpedoed, but reaches port. First ship torpedoed by German submarine without warning [German Government subsequently asserted that this ship was attacked in error.] (see October 20th, 1914, and March 13th, 1915).
Orders issued for employment at the Dardanelles of the Australian and New Zealand troops in Egypt (see 16th, and December 1st, 1914).
The Winter Battle in Masuria ends (see 4th).
First Battle of Przasnysz begins (see 27th).
Net barrage across North Channel (between Ireland and Scotland) established.
South African Northern Force begins advance from Swakopmund on Windhuk (see January 14th).
Lemnos (Ægean) occupied by British marines (see March 7th).
The first British Territorial division (the North Midland) [Not to be confused with first division of the New Armies, for which see May 9th.] leaves England for France.
Liquid fire first used by the Germans on the Western front.
First Battle of Przasnysz ends (see 22nd).
S.S. "Dacia" intercepted and seized by French naval forces (see 11th, and March 22nd).
British blockade of German East Africa commences.
Joint declaration signed by Great Britain and France to prevent trade by or with Germany (see April 17th, 1916).
French Government decide to send Expeditionary Force to the Dardanelles (see February 16th and 20th, and April 25th).
First case of "indicator" nets aiding in the destruction of a German submarine ("U.-8" in Straits of Dover). [First experimented with in January 1915.]
Russian Government send circular telegram to Entente Governments laying claim to Constantinople (see 12th).
Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) proffers Greek fleet and troops to Entente for operations at the Dardanelles (see 6th, and February 15th and September 21st).
King of Greece refuses assent to policy of M. Venizelos (see 5th). M. Venizelos resigns office as Premier (see 9th, and August 22nd) (date of appointment October 19th, 1910).
Greek Government request explanation of British occupation of Lemnos (see 9th, and February 23rd).
British bombardment of Smyrna ends (see 5th and 15th).
M. Gounaris appointed Premier of Greece (see 6th, and August 22nd).
British Government reply to Greek Government as to occupation of Lemnos, pleading military necessity (see 7th and 20th).
Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins (see March 13th).
British "Retaliatory Order in Council" relating to detention of enemy goods and Proclamation extending list of "absolute" contraband issued (see 12th, and December 23rd, 1914).
Dutch Government issue warning that foreign merchant ships using Dutch flag will be detained (see January 30th and February 11th).
British Government notify Russian Government of their acceptance of Russian claims to Constantinople (see 4th, April 12th, 1915, and December 2nd, 1916).
French Government issue decrees similar to British Order in Council and Proclamation of the 11th March.
General Sir Ian Hamilton appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean (Dardanelles) Expeditionary Force (see 17th).
Battle of Neuve Chapelle ends (see March 10th).
Agreement signed by French and Belgian Governments suspending Franco-Belgian Convention of July 30th, 1891, regarding military service laws.
Swedish S.S. "Hanna" torpedoed without warning. First neutral ship actually sunk by German submarine (see 25th and 28th, and February 19th).
Light cruiser "Dresden", the last German cruiser left at sea, sunk by British warships in Chilean waters off Juan Fernandez (see December 8th, 1914, and April 26th, 1915).
Mushir ed Dowleh succeeds Mustaufi ul Mamalek as Persian Prime Minister (see August 19th, 1914, and April 26th, 1915).
British Squadron blockading Smyrna withdrawn (see 5th and 9th).
First merchant ship (S.S. "Blonde") attacked by aircraft.
French Government lodge claim with British Government to Syria and Cilicia (see April 26th, 1916).
General Sir Ian Hamilton takes over command of Dardanelles Expeditionary Force (see 12th, and October 15th).
First Battle of Champagne ends (see December 20th, 1914).
Allied Naval attack on the Dardanelles forts repulsed (see February 19th). French battleship "Bouvet" and British battleships "Irresistible" and "Ocean" sunk.
General Sir John Nixon appointed Cormmander-in-Chief British Forces in Mesopotamia (see April 9th).
British Government conclude agreement with American cotton interests that cotton should be contraband.
Dutch Government lodge protest against blockade policy of the Entente (see 11th and 12th).
British Government guarantee Greece eventual cession of Lemnos by Turkey (see 9th and July 25th).
First German airship raid on Paris takes place (see .August 30th, 1914, and January 29th, 1916).
General Liman von Sanders appointed to command Turco-German Forces, Dardanelles.
Dutch S.S. "Medea" captured by German submarine and sunk. (First neutral ship sunk after visit and search) (see 13th).
The first passenger ship (British S.S. "Falaba") sunk by a German submarine (see 13th, and October 20th, 1914).
British Government conclude agreement with American rubber interests that rubber should not be exported except to Great Britain.
Russian Imperial ukase issued granting municipal self-government to Russian Poland (see August 14th, 1914 and November 5th, 1916).
Indecisive action in Black Sea between the "Goeben" and part of the Russian Fleet. Turkish cruiser "Medjidieh" sunk by mine off Odessa.
Dover Straits barrage completed.
First Indian units of Indian Expeditionary Force "G" (formed from Force "E") sail from Egypt for the Dardanelles (see December 31st).
Deportations and massacres of Armenians by order of the Turkish Government commence [Approximate date.] (see May 24th).
German armed merchant cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" interned at Newport News, Va. (see January 28th).
Battle of Shaiba (Mesopotamia) begins (see 14th).
First Allied advance on Yaunde (Cameroons) begins (see June 7th and 28th).
Entente Governments make offer to Greece of Smyrna and hinterland in return for immediate action against Turkey (see 14th, and January 24th).
French Government notify Russian Government of their acceptance of Russian claims to Constantinople (see March 12th).
Germans accuse French of using poison gas near Verdun (see 22nd).
Battle of Shaiba (Mesopotamia) ends (see 12th).
Greek Government reject Entente offer of Smyrna (see 12th).
British Secretary for the Colonies (Mr. Harcourt) states that Dominions will be consulted as to peace terms (see July 14th).
Japanese Government inform British Govermnent of German overtures for separate peace.
Urmia (North Persia) occupied by Turkish regular forces (see January 2nd and May 24th).
General Tighe succeeds General Wapshare in command of British Forces in East Africa (see December 4th, 1914, and February 19th, 1916).
Capture of Hill 60 (Ypres) (April 17th/22nd).
Operations of Allied Force for capture of Garua (Cameroons) begin (see May 31st).
First Affair of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).
Armenian revolt at Van: Armenian defence of Van begins (see May 19th).
Battles of Ypres, 1915, begin. Also known as The Second Battle of Ypres (see November 22nd, 1914 and May 25th, 1915).
First German gas clould attack on the Western Front (see 14th).
The Second Battle of Ypres consisted of four battles starting with the surprise gas attack by the Germans in the Battle of Gravenstafel Ridge. The following three battles were counter-attacks by the allied troops to try to regain the ground lost to the Germans. The three battles were: The Battle of St Julien (See 24th), The Battle of Frezenburg Ridge (See 8th May) and The Battle of Bellewarde Ridge (See 24th May)
Battle of Gravenstafel Ridge begins (Ypres) (22nd/23rd).
British blockade of the Cameroons commences (see February 29th, 1916).
Battle of St. Julien (Ypres) begins (see May 4th).
Allied Forces effect landing at the Dardanelles (25th/26th).
Bosporus forts shelled by Russian Black Sea Fleet (see March 27th).
Action of Gibeon (25th/26th) (German South-West Africa).
Secret agreement signed in London between Italian Government and the Entente for Italian co-operation in the war and declarations by which Italy adheres to the Pact of London (see September 5th, 1914, and May 4th, November 30th, and December 1st, 1915).
The last German raider overseas (armed merchant cruiser "Kron prinz Wilhelm") interned at Newport News (United States of America) (see March 14th).
French cruiser "Léon Gambetta" sunk by Austrian submarine in Straits of Otranto.
Mushir ed Doulch, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see March 14th and April 27th).
Muavin ed Douleh, Persian Foreign Minister, resigns (see February 20th and April 27th).
Ain ed Douleh appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 26th, and August 17th).
Mohtashem ed Douleh appointed Persian foreign Minister (see 26th, and March 5th, 1916).
First Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles) (see May 6th).
British Government conclude a treaty with the Idrisi for co-operation against the Turks (see January 31st).
Shavli (Baltic Provinces) occupied by German forces (see May 11th).
Austro-German Spring Offensive in Galicia: Battle of Gorlice-Tarnow begins (see 5th).
Battle of Dilman (North Persia).
S.S. "Gulflight" torpedoed without warning: damaged, but reaches port. First United States ship attacked by German submarine (see February 19th and March 13th).
Italy denounces the Triple Alliance (see April 26th).
Battle of St. Julien (Ypres) ends (see April 24th).
Battle of Gorlice-Tarnow ends (see 1st).
Second Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles) begins (see 8th, and April 28th).
Libau (Baltic Provinces) taken by German forces (see April 30th).
S.S. "Lusitania" sunk by German submarine "U.-20" off Queenstown (see February 6th).
British Foreign Minister (Sir E. Grey) gives conditional guarantee to Serbian Minister of eventual cession of Bosnia and Herzegovina with "wide access to the Adriatic" (see August 15th and 30th).
Japan presents ultimatum to China demanding territorial concessions (see 9th).
Battle of Frezenberg Ridge (Ypres) begins (see 13th).
Second Battle of Krithia ends (see 6th and June 4th).
Battle of Sanok and Rzeszow begins (see 14th).
Allied Spring Offensive begins: Battle of Aubers Ridge.
Second Battle of Artois begins (see June 18th).
The leading division of the British New Armies leaves England for France (see August 21st, 1914 and February 24th, 1915).
President Wilson, in a speech, defines United States policy in regard to the "Lusitania" outrage (see 7th).
Chinese Government yield to Japanese demands (see 7th and 25th).
Naval Convention signed between Great Britain, France, and Italy.
Shavli evacuated by German forces (see April 30th).
Battle of Frezenberg Ridge (Ypres) ends (see May 8th).
Windhuk (German South-West Africa) occupied by South African Northern Force.
H.M.S. "Goliath" sunk by Turkish destroyer in the Dardanelles.
Signor Salandra, Italian Premier, tenders his resignation (see 16th and October 30th, 1914).
Baron Sonnino, Italian Foreign Minister, tenders his resignation (see May 16th, and November 3rd, 1914).
Jaroslaw taken by Austro-German forces (see September 21st, 1914).
Last meeting of British War Council (see August 5th, 1914 and June 7th, 1915).
General da Castro, Portuguese Premier, resigns (see 15th and January 25th).
Battle of Sanok and Rzeszow ends (see 8th).
Battle of Festubert begins (see 25th).
Senhor J. Pinheiro Chagas appointed Portuguese Premier (see 14th and June 19th).
Lord Fisher, First Sea Lord, Great Britain, tenders his resignation (see 28th and October 30th, 1914).
Battle of the San (Galicia) begins (see 23rd).
Signor Salandra reappointed Italian Premier on reconstruction of Cabinet, with Baron Sonnino as Foreign Minister (see 13th and June 11th, 1916).
Battles of Stryj and Drohobycz begin (see June 3rd).
Van (Armenia) taken by Russian forces. Armenian garrison relieved (see April 20th and August 3rd, 1915 and April 5th, 1918).
Russian Expeditionary Force to West Persia lands at Enzeli (see February 17th, 1918).
Battle of the San ends (see 16th).
Italian Government order Mobilisation and declare war against Austria.
General Cadorna appointed Commander-in-Chief [Officially designated " Chief of Staff," the King being the nominal Commander-in-Chief.] of Italian Armies in the Field (see November 7th, 1917).
Battle of Bellewaerde Ridge (Ypres) (24th/25th).
Battle of Przemysl begins (see June 3rd and 11th).
Battle of the Stryj (Galicia) begins (see June 11th).
Italian forces cross Austrian frontier (midnight 24th/25th).
Germany severs diplomatic relations with Italy [For the purposes of the Treaty of Versailles it was subsequently assumed that this rupture took place on the 27th, which date was accepted as that of the commencement of Italy's belligerence against Germany.] (see august 28th, 1916).
Urmia (North Persia) retaken by Russian forces (see April 16th).
Entente Governments declare that they will hold Turkish Ministers personally responsible for the Armenian massacres (see April 8th).
Battles of Ypres 1915 end (see April 22nd, 1915 and July 31st, 1917).
Battle of Festubert ends (see 15th).
H.M.S. "Triumph" sunk by submarine off the Dardanelles.
Italian fleet commences operations in the Adriatic (see 26th).
Coalition Ministry formed in Great Britain by Mr. Asquith (see December 11th, 1916).
Treaty signed between China and Japan concerning Shantung Province (see 7th and 9th).
Treaty signed between China and Japan concerning South Manchuria and Inner Mongolia (see 7th and 9th).
Italian Government announce blockade of Austro-Hungarian coast.
British battle squadron concentrates at Malta prior to joining Italian fleet in Adriatic (see 27th).
British squadron joins Italian fleet in the Adriatic (see 26th).
H.M.S. "Majestic" sunk by submarine at the Dardanelles.
Mr. Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain, resigns (appointed October 24th, 1911) (see 28th).
British minelayer "Princess Irene" destroyed by internal explosion in Sheerness harbour.
Mr Arthur Balfour appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain (see 27th, and December 11th, 1916).
Sir Henry Jackson appointed First Sea Lord, Great Britain (see 15th, and December 3rd, 1916).
Dr. Joaquim T. Braga elected President of Portugal (see 29th, and October 5th).
Valona formally occupied by Italian forces (see December 26th, 1914).
Dr. Manoel Arriaga, Portuguese President, resigns (appointed August 24th, 1911) (see 28th).
Affair of Sphinxhaven (Lake Nyassa). British command of the lake secured.
Siege of Garua (Cameroons) begins (see April 18th and June 10th).
First German airship raid on London area (see January 19th 1915, October 19th, 1917 and august 5th, 1918).
Second action of Qurna (Mesopotamia).
Blockade of coast of Asia Minor announced by British Government.
Przemysl retaken by Austro-German forces (see March 22nd and May 24th).
Amara (Mesopotamia) captured by British forces.
First meeting in Paris of Allied Conference on Economic War (see February 5th, 1915 and June 14th, 1916).
Act Passed in British Parliament empowering Customs to compel all exports to Holland to be consigned to the Netherlands Oversea Trust (see November 23rd, 1914 and December 7th, 1915).
San Marino declares war on Austria-Hungary.
Battles of Stryj and Drohobycz end (see May 18th).
Third Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles).
First Conference of British and French Ministers to co-ordinate war policy and strategy held at Calais.
German airship "L.Z.-37" destroyed in mid-air by Lieut. Warneford, R.N.A.S., near Ghent (first occasion of airship successfully attacked by aeroplane).
Russian and Chinese Governments conclude agreement respecting Mongolia (see May 25th).
First meeting of Dardanelles Committee of the British Cabinet [Under this title the War Council (see August 5th, 1914, and May 14th, 1915) exercised its functions during the critical period of the Dardanelles campaign.] (see May 14th and October 30th).
Allied Commander-in-Chief in the Cameroons decides to abandon the advance on Yaunde (see 28th and April 12th).
Stanislau recaptured by Austrian forces (see March 4th, 1915, and August 10th, 1916).
Monfalcone (Isonzo) taken by Italian forces.
Garua (Cameroons) capitulates to the Anglo-French force under General Cunliffe (see flay 31st).
Battle of Zydaczow begins (see 22nd).
Battle of Przemysl ends (see 3rd and May 24th).
Battle of the Stryj ends (see May 24th).
Battle of Mosciuska and Lubaczow begins (see 15th).
Turkish Attack on Perim (14th/15th).
Battle of Mosciuska and Lubaczow ends (see 12th).
Third Battle of Lemberg begins (see 22nd).
Second Battle of Artois ends (see May 9th and September 25th).
South African forces begin advance on Otavifontein (see July 1st).
Dr. José de Castro succeeds Senhor J. P. Chagas as Portuguese Premier (see May 15th and November 29th).
Third Battle of Lemberg ends: city retaken by the Austrian forces (see 17th and September 3rd, 1914, and November 23rd, 1918).
Battle of Zydaczow ends (see 10th).
Mr. Lansing succeeds Mr Bryan as United States Secretary of State.
San Giovanni de Medua (Albania) occupied by Montenegrin forces (see July 29th).
General Sukhomlinov, Russian Minister for War, removed from office (appointed in 1909); succeeded by General Polivanov (see March 29th, 1916).
British advance up the Euphrates begins (see July 25th).
Battle of the Gnila-Lipa begins (see 29th).
Action of Gully Ravine (Dardanelles) begins (see July 2nd).
Operations of the first advance on Yaunde (Cameroons) end (see 7th).
Ngaundere (Cameroons) captured by the allied Northern Force.
First Battle of the Isonzo begins (see July 7th).
Battle of the Gnila-Lipa ends (see 27th).
Second Battle of Krasnik begins (see 19th).
Otavifontein (German South-West Africa) captured by South African forces (see June 19th).
Action of Gully Ravine ends (see June 28th).
Naval action in the Baltic between Russian and German squadrons off Gottland. German minelayer "Albatross" driven ashore.
Munitions of War Act, 1915, becomes law in Great Britain.
Ministry of Munitions formed in Great Britain.
Lahej (South Arabia) taken by Turkish forces (4th/5th).
Durazzo occupied by Serbian forces (see 17th and October 4th, 1914).
First Battle of the Isonzo ends (see June 29th).
Italian cruiser "Amalfi" sunk by Austrian submarine in the Adriatic.
German South-West Africa capitulates to General Botha (see September 19th, 1914).
German light cruiser "Königsberg" destroyed in Rufiji River, German East Africa, by British monitors (see September 20th and October 31st, 1914).
British residency at Bushire (South Persia) attacked by Tangistani tribesmen (see August 8th).
Great Austro-German Offensive on Eastern front begins.
Battle of the Narew and Bobr begins (see 26th).
Second Battle of Przasnysz begins (see 17th).
Battles of Maslomencze and Grabowiec begin (see 18th).
A Dominion Premier (Sir R. Borden, Canada) for the first time attends meeting of the British Cabinet (see April 14th).
Sherif of Mecca opens direct negotiations with British Government for co-operation against the Turks (see October 31st, 1914, and October 24th, 1915).
Battle of Schaulen begins.
National Registration Act becomes law in Great Britain (see August 15th).
Battle of Krasnostav begins (see 18th).
Durazzo evacuated by the Serbian forces at request of Italian Government (see 4th and August 31st).
Treaty of alliance signed at Sofia between Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and Turkey. Albania to be ceded to Bulgaria in return for Bulgarian participation in war.
Battle of Sienno (one day).
Second Battle of Przasnysz ends (see 13th).
Second Battle of the Isonzo begins (see August 10th).
Italian cruiser "Giuseppe Garibaldi" sunk by Austrian submarine in the Adriatic.
Battles of Maslomencze and Grabowiec end (see 13th).
Battle of Krasnostav ends (see 16th).
Second Battle of Krasnik ends (see 1st).
Battles of Hruhieszow and Wojslawice begin (see 30th).
Battle of Le Linge (Vosges mountains) begins (see 15th October).
Second Battle of Ivangorod begins (see 21st).
Ivangorod (Poland) invested by Austro-German forces (see August 5th).
Second Battle of Ivangorod ends (see 20th).
Bukoba, on Victoria Nyanza (German East Africa), captured by British forces (22nd/23rd).
Rozan and Pultusk (North Poland) stormed by German forces.
Nasiriya (Mesopotamia) taken by British forces (see June 27th).
British Government guarantee to Greece eventual cession of Mitylene by Turkey (see March 20th).
Pelagosa Island, in Adriatic, occupied by Italian forces.
Battle of the Narew and Bobr ends (see 13th).
Entente Governments warn Montenegro that they will not recognise her occupation of Albanian territory (see June 26th).
Establishment of the East Persia Cordon (Anglo-Russian) begins (see October 7th).
Battle of Biskupice begins (see 30th).
The Pope sends appeal for peace to belligerent Governments (see November 5th, 1914 and August 1st, 1917).
Battles of Hruhieszow and Wojslawice end (see 19th).
Battle of Biskupice ends (see 29th).
Battle of Kupischki begins.
Battle of Strelcze (one day).
Constantinople harbour raided by British submarine.
Van (Armenia) evacuated by the Russian forces (see 5th, and May 19th).
Warsaw occupied by German forces (see July 13th).
Ivangorod taken by Austro-German forces (see July 21st).
Van occupied by Turkish forces (see 3rd).
Operations of the landing at Suvla (Dardanelles) begin (see 15th).
Battle of Sari Bair (Dardanelles) begins (see 9th and 10th).
Dr. Machado Guimarães elected Portuguese President (see October 5th, 1915, and December 11th, 1917).
Bulgarian Government negotiate fresh loan for 400,000,000 francs with Austro-German banks (see February 3rd).
Agreement concluded between Japan and China substituting Japanese authority for German in Tsingtau customs (see November 7th, 1914).
Bushire (South Persia) occupied by British forces (see July 12th and September 9th).
Turkish battleship "Barbarousse-Hairedine" sunk by British submarine "E.-11" in the Dardanelles.
German naval attack on Riga begins (see 21st).
Decisive day of Battle of Sari Bair (see 6th and 10th).
Viscount Kato, Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, resigns (previously appointed April 16th, 1914) (see 10th).
Battle of Sari Bair ends (see 6th and 9th).
Second Battle of the Isonzo ends (see July 18th).
German airship "L.-12" extensively damaged by British aircraft off Ostend.
Marquis Okuma appointed Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (ad interim) (see 9th, and September 21st).
First ship sunk by torpedo from British seaplane (Dardanelles).
H.M.T. "Royal Edward" sunk in the Ægean by German submarine. [First transport so lost.]
Operations of the landing at Suvla end (see 6th and 21st).
Entente Governments make conditional offer of territorial acquisitions to Serbia (see 30th and May 7th).
National Register taken in Great Britain (see July 15th).
Lowca and Harrington, near Whitehaven (Cumberland), shelled by German submarine.
Kowno stormed by German forces (17th/18th).
Ain ed Douleh, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see 18th and April 27th).
Mustaufi ul Mamalek again appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 17th. and December 24th).
German battle cruiser "Moltke" torpedoed by British submarine "E.-1" in Gulf of Riga.
British submarine "E.-13" attacked by German warships while aground in Danish waters.
British S.S. "Arabic" sunk by German submarine.
H.M.S. "Baralong" (special service ship) destroys German submarine "U.-27"
Novo-Georgievsk (Poland) stormed by German forces.
Battle of Scimitar Hill (Suvla) (see 15th).
Italy declares war on Turkey.
First authenticated case of German submarine firing on a ship's crew in open boats (British S.S. "Ruel").
German naval attack on Riga discontinued (see 8th).
Osovets (North Poland) stormed by German forces.
M. Venizelos again appointed Premier of Greece in succession to M. Gounaris (see March 6th and 9th and October 5th).
Brest-Litovsk (Poland) taken by German forces (25th/26th).
Byelostok (Poland) taken by German forces.
British Foreign Minister (Sir E. Grey) informs M. Supilo that, provided Serbia agreed, the Allies could guarantee the eventual freedom and self-determination of Bosnia, Herzegovina, South Dalmatia, Slavonia and Croatia (see 15th and May 7th).
Durazzo reoccupied by Serbian forces (see July 17th and December 6th).
German Government inform United States Government that United States demands for limitation of submarine activity are accepted.
Ruad Island, off Syrian coast, occupied by French forces.
Grodno captured by German forces (2nd/3rd).
The Tsar supersedes the Grand Duke Nicholas in supreme command of the Russian Armies with General Alexeiev as Chief of Staff [Though nominally Chief of Staff, General Alexeiev was virtually Commander-in-Chief and performed the duties of that office till the Tsar's abdication on March 15th, 1917 and continued as Commander-in-Chief thereafter without further appointment.] (see 8th, August 3rd, 1914 and March 15th and June 4th, 1917).
Action of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).
Russian counter-offensive in Galicia. Battle of Tarnopol begins (see 16th).
The Grand Duke Nicholas appointed Viceroy of the Caucasus (see 5th).
Second Allied Attack on Mora (Cameroons) (8th/9th).
Battle of Dvinsk begins (see November 1st).
Battle of Vilna begins (see October 2nd).
Bushire (South Persia) again attacked by tribesmen (see August 8th).
Turco-Bulgarian Frontier Convention signed at Dimotika.
United States Government request recall of Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, Dr. Dumba (appointed to United States, March 1913) (see 28th).
Pinsk taken by German forces.
Battle of Tarnopol ends (see 7th).
Vilna taken by German forces (see 9th).
Bulgarian Government order partial mobilisation (see 22nd).
Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) asks for guarantee of 150,000 British and French troops as condition for Greek intervention (see 24th, and March 5th).
Viscount Ishii succeeds Marquis Okuma as Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (see August 10th, 1915 and October 9th, 1916.
"Dede Agatch Agreement" concluded between Turkey and Bulgaria rectifying Turkish frontier in favour of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian Government order general mobilisation for 25th.
Second Advance on Yaunde (Cameroons) begins (see January 1st, 1916).
Greek Government order precautionary mobilisation.
French and British Governments inform Greek Government that they are prepared to send troops requested (see 21st, 27th and 28th).
Allied Autumn Offensive begins:- Battle of Loos begins (see October 8th).
Third Battle of Artois begins (see June 18th and October 15th).
Second Battle of Champagne begins (see March 17th and November 6th).
General Sir J. Wolfe Murray, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Great Britain, resigns (see 26th, and October 26th, 1914).
Bulgarian mobilisation begins (see 22nd).
Serbian Government give undertaking to Greek Government to cede Doiran and Gevgeli eventually to Greece, and not to claim Strumitsa.
Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Great Britain (see 25th, and January 24th and December 22nd).
Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) obtains secret consent of King Constantine to proposed Entente expedition to Salonika (see 24th and 28th).
Malian battleship "Benedetto Brin" destroyed by internal explosion in harbour at Brindisi.
Battle of Kut, 1915 (Mesopotamia).
Dr. Dumba, Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, recalled from United States of America (see 9th).
Greek Government formally refuse French and British "offer" of the 24th (see 27th, and October 2nd).
British and Russian Governments agree to request of Persian Government for a monthly subvention.
Lord Derby assumes control of recruiting in Great Britain (see December 11th, 1916).
Beginning of period [Approximate date] in which the Germans obtained mastery in the air on the Western front (due to the Fokker machine) (see April 1st, 1916).
Battle of Vilna ends (see September 9th).
Greek Premier (M. Venizelos) asks British and French Governments to land troops at Salonika as soon as possible (see 3rd and 5th, and September 28th).
Allied troops arrive at Salonika: Greek Government protest against a landing (see 2nd, 5th and 6th).
First German merchant vessel (S.S. "Livonia") sunk by British submarine in the Baltic.
Entente Powers send ultimatum to Bulgaria (see 5th and 13th).
French and British forces land at Salonika (see 3rd).
King of Greece refuses to support policy of Premier (M. Venizelos) (see 2nd, and September 27th).
M. Venizelos again resigns (see 6th, and August 22nd, 1915, and June 26th, 1917).
Russia severs diplomatic relations with Bulgaria (see 4th and 19th).
Dr. Machado Guimarães succeeds Dr. J. Braga as Portuguese President (see May 28th, and August 6th, 1915 and December 11th, 1917).
Final Austro-German invasion of Serbia begins (see December 15th, 1914).
M. Zaimis appointed Greek Premier (see 5th, and November 5th).
King of Greece gives assurance to British Minister that Greece will maintain neutrality, but Greek mobilisation (see September 23rd) and Allied disembarkation at Salonika will proceed (see 3rd, 5th and 8th).
Austro-German forces effect passage of the Save and Danube (see 6th).
Birjand (East Persia) occupied by British forces (see July 29th).
Battle of Loos ends (see September 25th).
New Greek Government (see 6th) announce policy of armed neutrality.
Belgrade taken by Austrian forces (see December 15th, 1914 and November 1st, 1918).
Second Affair of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).
Greek Government reject Serbian claim for help under Serbo-Greek Treaty of 1912.
Hostilities commence between Bulgarian and Serbian forces (see 14th).
Semendria (Serbia) taken by Austrian forces (see 6th).
Miss Edith Cavell shot in Brussels by order of a German court martial.
Most severe airship raid on East Coast of England and London; casualties 200 (see January 19th and May 31st, 1915, October 19th, 1917 and August 5th, 1918).
Great Britain severs diplomatic relations with Bulgaria (see 4th and 15th).
Hostilities commence between French and Bulgarian forces in Macedonia.
M. Delcassé, French Foreign Minister, resigns; M. Viviani succeeds temporarily (see 29th and 30th).
Bulgaria and Serbia declare war on one another (see 4th and 11th).
Third Battle of Artois ends (see September 25th).
Great Britain declares "state of war" with Bulgaria (see 13th).
Montenegro declares "state of war" with Bulgaria.
Rumanian Government refuse to aid Serbia (see January 25th).
Vranje (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see October 5th, 1918).
General Sir Charles Monro appointed to succeed Sir Ian Hamilton as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 17th and 28th, and March 17th).
France declares "state of war" with Bulgaria (see 4th and 15th).
British Government offer Cyprus to Greece if she will support Serbia (see 20th, and January 24th).
Entente Governments proclaim blockade of Ægean coast of Bulgaria.
General Sir William Birdwood takes over temporary command of Mediterranean Expeditionary Force from Sir Ian Hamilton (see 15th and 28th).
Third Battle of the Isonzo begins (see November 3rd).
Ishtip (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 25th, 1918).
Russia and Italy declare war on Bulgaria (see 4th and 5th).
Japan declares adherence to the Pact of London (see September 5th, 1914 and November 30th, 1915).
Greek Government reject British offer of Cyprus (see 16th).
Dede Agatch (Bulgaria) bombarded by Allied squadron.
Veles taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 25th, 1918).
Kumanovo and Üsküb (Skoplje) taken by Bulgarian forces.
Shabatz taken by Austrian forces.
German cruiser "Prinz Adalbert" sunk by British submarine "E.-8" in the Baltic.
Negotin, on River Vardar, taken by Bulgarian forces.
First Action of Krivolak (Macedonia).
British Government in letter to Sherif of Mecca define territorial limits of proposed Arab State (see July 14th, 1915 and June 5th, 1916).
H.M.S. "Argyll" wrecked on east coast of Scotland.
Lieut.-General Sir Bryan Mahon appointed General Officer Commanding British Forces, Balkans (see May 9th, 1916).
General Sir Charles Monro assumes command of Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 15th, 17th, and November 4th).
M. Viviani, French Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns (date of appointment as Premier June 14th, 1914) (see 13th and 30th).
M. Millerand, French Minister for War, resigns (see 30th, and August 27th, 1914).
Third Allied attack on Mora (Cameroons) begins (see November 4th).
Second Action of Krivolak (Macedonia).
M. Briand succeeds M. Viviani as French Premier and Foreign Minister (see 29th, and March 17th, 1917).
General Galliéni appointed French Minister for War (see 29th, and March 16th, 1916).
Last meeting of Dardanelles Committee of the British Cabinet (see June 7th and November 3rd).
Kragujevatz (North Serbia) taken by Austro-German forces (30th/1st).
Battle of Dvinsk ends (see September 9th).
British Premier (Mr Asquith) declares Serbian independence to be an essential object of the war.
Kasvin (West Persia) occupied by a Russian force.
Third Battle of the Isonzo ends (see October 18th).
Serbian Government leave Nish (see 23rd, and July 25th, 1914).
First meeting of newly-constituted War Committee of British Cabinet to replace the Dardanelles Committee (see October 30th, 1915, and December 1st, 1916).
Port and Transit Executive Committee formed in Great Britain (see 10th).
Third Allied attack on Mora abandoned (see October 30th).
Banyo (Cameroons) attacked by General Cunliffe's Allied force (see 6th).
Lord Kitchener leaves England for the Dardanelles (see 10th).
General Sir Charles Monro appointed to command Salonika Force. Sir William Birdwood to command Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 25th, and October 15th, 17th, and 28th).
Nish taken by Bulgarian forces (see 3rd, and October 11th, 1918).
Battle of Kachanik (Serbia) begins (see 8th).
M. Zaimis, Greek Prime Minister, resigns (see 6th, and October 6th).
German airship "L.Z.-39" destroyed near Grodno.
Second Battle of Champagne ends (see September 25th).
Sollum (Western Egypt) attacked by German submarine (see 14th). [Egyptian coastguard cruiser "Abbas" sunk and "Nur el Bahr" disabled.]
Banyo captured by Allied force (see 4th).
M. Skouloudhis appointed Greek Premier (see 5th, and June 21st, 1916).
German cruiser "Undine" sunk by British submarine "E.-19"
Italian S.S. "Ancona " sunk by Austrian submarine.
Battle of Kachanik ends (see 5th).
Entente loan (£1,600,000) to Greece concluded (see July 20th, 1916).
Fourth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see December 10th).
Indian Corps begins to leave France for Mesopotamia (see October 19th, 1914).
Lord kitchener arrives at the Dardanelles (see 4th).
Ship Licensing Committee formed in Great Britain: Order in Council prohibits voyages between foreign ports except under licence (see February 15th, 1916).
Requisitioning (Carriage of Foodstuffs) Committee formed in Great Britain: Order in Council authorises requisition of ships for carriage of foodstuffs (see November 3rd, 1917).
First British advance on Baghdad begins (see 22nd).
Senussi commence hostilities against British by attacking Egyptian post at Sollum (see 6th and 23rd).
Representatives of Central Powers leave Teheran (Persia) on approach of Russian forces.
Babuna Pass and Prilep (South Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 23rd, 1918).
Anglo-French Conference held in Paris to discuss aid to Serbia and Dardanelles expeditions. Project approved in principle to appoint Council of War to co-ordinate Allied action (see December 29th).
British hospital ship "Anglia" sunk by mine off Dover.
Novi Bazar taken by Austrian forces (see October 14th, 1918).
Battle of Ctesiphon (Mesopotamia) begins (see 25th).
General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien appointed Commander-in-Chief of British forces in East Africa [Did not take over command owing to illness.] (see January 31st, 1916).
Rovereto (Trentino) taken by Italian forces.
Mitrovitza and Pristina (Serbia) taken by Austro-German forces (see October 10th, 1918).
Serbian Government leave Prizren for Scutari (Shkodra) (see 3rd, and December 3rd).
British military operations against the Senussi commence (see December 13th, 1915 and February 8th, 1917): Sollum post evacuated (see 14th).
Entente Powers send Note to Greek Government demanding non interference with Allied troops, and guaranteeing eventual restoration of occupied Greek territory (see 24th, and October 3rd).
British Government conclude preliminary agreement with the Netherlands Overseas Trust for rationing of Holland (see June 3rd, 1915 and June 30th, 1916).
Greek Government accept Entente demands of the 23rd.
Field-Marshal von der Goltz (see December 10th, 1914 and April 19th, 1916) takes command of Turkish forces in Mesopotamia.
Danish merchants and manufacturers conclude agreement with the British Government to restrict supplies to Germany.
British retreat from Ctesiphon to Kut al Amara begins (see 22nd, and December 3rd).
M. Albert Thomas announces arrangements completed for inter Allied organisation of munitions.
General Sir Charles Monro appointed Commander-in-Chief reconstituted Mediterranean Expeditionary Force with Sir William Birdwood General Officer Commanding Dardanelles Army (see 4th and January 9th, 1916).
Dr. A. Augusto da Costa succeeds Dr. J, de Castro as Portuguese Premier (see June 19th, 1915, and March 15th, 1916).
Serbian retreat through Albania begins (see January 15th, 1916).
Formal signature of the Pact of London by Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Italy (see September 5th, 1914; April 26th, 1915; and October 19th, 1915).
Prizren (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see October 11th, 1918).
Italy announces her adherence to the Pact of London (see November 30th).
Monastir (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see November 19th, 1916).
French retreat from Serbia to Salonika begins: Krivolak evacuated.
British forces, retreating from Ctesiphon, reach Kut (see 7th, and November 25th),
General Joffre Chief of French General Staff from July 28th, 1911, appointed Commander-in-Chief French Armies. Appointment of Chief of General Staff lapses (see April 29th, 1917).
Serbian Government and military headquarters set up at Scutari (Shkodra) (see November 23rd, 1915, and January 15th, 1916).
United States Government request recall of German attachés Captains Boy-Ed and Von Papen (see 10th).
Action of Demir Kapu (5th/6th) in French retreat from Serbia.
Kut placed in state of defence (see 3rd and 7th).
Durazzo bombarded by Austrian squadron (see 20th, and August 31st).
lpek (Montenegro) taken by Austro-German forces (see October 14th, 1918).
British Government put economic pressure on Greece by making the "export restrictions" apply to that country (see 13th).
Siege of Kut begins (see 3rd, and January 4th and April 29th, 1916).
Actions of Kosturino (7th/8th). British retreat from Macedonia begins.
Agreement concluded between French Government and Netherlands Oversea Trust (see November 23rd, 1914, and November 23rd, 1915).
Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac ordered (see 19th and 20th).
Debra and Okhrida (Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces.
General Castelnau appointed Chief of Staff to General Joffre (see 3rd).
General Sarrail demands withdrawal of Greek troops from Salonika (see 11th).
Fourth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see November 10th).
German Government recall from United States attachés Von Papen and Boy-Ed (see 4th, and January 15th, 1916).
Doiran and Gevgeli (South Serbia) taken by Bulgarian forces (see September 22nd, 1918).
Greek Government refuse Entente demand for withdrawal of Greek troops from Salonika (see 9th).
Yuan-Shih-Kai accepts throne of China (see March 22nd, 1916 and June 6th, 1916).
Affair of the Wadi Senab (11th/13th) (see November 23rd, 1915, and February 26th, 1916).
British Government order partial relaxation of economic pressure on Greece (see 6th).
Hamadan (Western Persia) occupied by Russian forces (see August 10th, 1916).
Bulgarian and Greek General Staffs conclude agreement establishing temporary neutral zone along Greek frontier.
The last Allied forces in Macedonia withdrawn into Greek territory (see 7th and September 19th, 1916).
Qasr-i-Shirin (Western Persia) occupied by Turkish forces (see May 7th, 1916).
Field-Marshal Sir John French resigns as Commander-in-Chief of British armies in France (see 19th, and August 4th, 1914, and May 5th, 1918).
German light cruiser "Bremen" sunk by British submarine in the Baltic.
Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac begun (see 8th and 20th).
General Sir Douglas Haig succeeds Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies in France (see 15th, and January 1st, 1917).
Bulgarian and Greek General Staffs conclude agreement establishing temporary neutral zone along Greek frontier.
Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac completed (see 8th, 19th and 28th). Durazzo occupied by Italian forces (see 6th, and February 27th, 1916).
Lieut.-General Sir W. Robertson resigns as Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 23rd, and January 25th) and is succeeded by Lieut.-General L. E. Kiggell (see January 27th, 1918).
Lieut.-General Sir A. J. Murray, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, resigns (see 23rd, and September 26th, 1915, and March 19th, 1916).
British naval operations on Lake Tanganyika begin (see 26th).
General Sir W. Robertson appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff (see 22nd, and February 18th, 1918).
"Trading with the Enemy (Extension of Powers) Act, 1915" (beginning of "Black List" policy), comes into force in Great Britain (see January 26th and July 28th, 1916).
Mustaufi ul Mamalek (Persian Prime Minister) resigns (see 25th, and August 18th).
Turkish Christmas Eve Attack on Kut (24th/25th).
Affair of the Wadi Majid (Western Egypt).
Kangavar (Western Persia) occupied by a Russian force.
Prince Firman Firma appointed Prime Minister of Persia (see 24th, and March 5th, 1916).
German raider "Moewe" sails from Bremen on first cruise (see February 1st, 1916).
Naval action on Lake Tanganyika: German gunboat "Kingani" captured by H.M.S. "Mimi" and "Toutou" (see 23rd, and February 9th, 1916).
Treaty concluded between British Government and Ibn Sa'ud, Emir of Nejd (see July 18th, 1916).
Evacuation of remainder of Gallipoli Peninsula ordered (see 20th, and January 8th, 1916).
Durazzo raided by Austrian naval light forces: latter brought to action in Southern Adriatic.
Draft rules approved for Inter-Allied Council of War (see November 17th).
Consuls of Central Powers at Salonika arrested and deported by order of General Sarrail, Commanding French troops.
H.M.S. "Natal" destroyed by internal explosion in Cromarty harbour.
Last units of Indian Expeditionary Force "G" leave the Dardanelles to amalgamate with Indian Expeditionary Force "E" in Egypt (see April 7th).