• +61 (08) 9398 1131
  • secretary@sdrc.com.au
1915 - Timeline

1916 - Timeline

1917 - Timeline

1918 - Timeline

Australian Weapons

Australian Uniforms

Australian Battalions

                       

Australian War Memorial



The Australian Light Horse Assoc.



History of the Great War

JANUARY 1916

 

1st January
  • Yaunde (Cameroons) taken by General Dobell's forces (see September 22nd, 1915).
  • King of Serbia arrives at Salonika (see 15th).
4th January
  • First Attempt to relieve Kut begins: relieving force begins advance from Ali Gharbi (see 21st and December 7th, 1915).
6th January
  • H.M.S. "King Edward VII" sunk by mine off North of Scotland.
  • Action of Sheikh Sa'ad (Mesopotamia) begins (see 4th and 8th).
7th January
  • Evacuation of Helles (Gallipoli Peninsula) begins (see 8th and December 28th, 1915).
8th January
  • Evacuation of the Gallipoli Peninsula completed (see 7th, and December 28th, 1915).
  • Action of Sheikh Sa'ad ends (see 6th).
9th January
  • General Sir Charles Monro vacates command of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and General Sir William Birdwood vacates command of the Dardanelles army (see November 25th, 1915). [Sir Charles Monro was appointed later Commander-in-Chief in India. Sir William Birdwood later temporarily commanded the Fourth Army in France and then the Australian Corps, till eventually appointed to command the Fifth Army on May 23rd, 1918.]
10th January
  • Entente Governments inform Greek Government of proposed transport of Serbian Army to Corfu (see 11th and 15th).
  • Mount Lovchen (Montenegro) taken by Austrian forces.
  • General Sir A.J. Murray takes over command of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 9th).
11th January
  • Corfu occupied by French forces (see 10th, 13th and 15th).
  • Russian offensive towards Erzerum begins (see February 12th).
12th January
  • Armistice concluded between Montenegro and Austria (see 20th).
13th January
  • Cetinje (Montenegro) occupied by Austrian forces.
  • Kirmanshah (West Persia) occupied by Turkish forces (see February 26th).
  • Greek Government refuse consent to the occupation of Corfu (see 11th).
14th January
  • Action of the Wadi (Mesopotamia) (13th/14th).
  • Lieut.-General Sir Percy Lake appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mesopotamia (see 19th, and August 28th).
15th January
  • British S.S. "Appam" captured by German raider "Moewe" (see December 26th, 1915, and February 1st, 1916).
  • Von Papen papers published in U.S.A. (see December 10th. 1915).
  • First Serbian troops land at Corfu (see 10th, November 30th, 1915 and February 10th., 1916).
  • Serbian Government transferred to Brindisi (see December 3rd, 1915 and February 9th, 1916).
  • King of Serbia leaves Salonika (see 1st and 17th).
16th January
  • General Sarrail assumes command of all Allied forces at Salonika (see December 14th, 1917).
17th January
  • Keupri-Keui (Armenia) again captured by Russian forces (see December 17, 1914).
  • King of Serbia arrives at Edypsos (see 15th and November 6th, 1918).
18th January
  • Baron Beyens succeeds M. J. Davignon as Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs (M. Davignon was appointed on February 28th, 1914) (see August 4th, 1917). [Baron Beyens officiated in the appointment from July 26th, 1915, till January 18th, 1916, i during which period M. Davignon was absent, owing to ill-health.]
19th January
  • Lieut.-General Sir Percy Lake takes over command of British forces in Mesopotamia from General Nixon (see 14th, and August 28th).
20th January
  • Negotiations between Austria and Montenegro broken off. Armistice ceases (see 12th).
21st January
  • First British Attack on Hanna (Mesopotamia): First Attempt to relieve Kut fails (see 4th, and March 8th).
22nd January
  • Antivari (Montenegro) occupied by Austrian forces (see March 1st, 1915 and November 4th, 1918).
  • Rumanian Government open negotiations with Russian Government with a view to military assistance (see August 17th).
23rd January
  • Scutari (Albania) occupied by Austrian forces (see October 31st, 1918).
  • Podgoritza (Montenegro) occupied by Austrian forces.
24th January
  • First Military Service Bill passed by British House of Commons (see February 10th).
25th January
  • San Giovanni di Medua (Albania) captured by Austrian forces (see June 26th, 1915 and October 29th, 1918).
26th January
  • United States Government make informal protest to British Government regarding their "Black List" policy (see December 23rd, 1915 and July 28th, 1916).
27th January
  • Shipping Control Committee formed in Great Britain (see November 3rd and 10th, 1915 and December 22nd, 1916).
  • Great Britain: The Military Service Act is passed by Parliament, imposing conscription on all single men aged 18 to 41 in Great Britain. Exemptions were made for men in essential war work, those declared medically unfit, religious ministers, and conscientious objectors. (The period of consription was in force until 1919).
29th January
  • Last German airship raid on Paris (see March 21st, 1915 and September 16th, 1918).
31st January
  • General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien resigns appointment as Commander-in-Chief British Forces, East Africa [Did not take over command owing to illness.] (see November 22nd, 1915, and February 19th, 1916).
  • Airship raid on England; furthest penetration westwards; casualties 183 (see January 19th, 1915, and August 5th, 1918).

FEBRUARY 1916

 

1st February
  • British S.S. "Appam" brought to Norfolk, Va., U.S.A., by German prize crew from raider "Moewe" (see January 15th and March 4th).
  • M. Goremikin, Russian Premier, resigns (date of appointment January 30th, 1914). M. Stürmer appointed successor (see July 22nd and November 24th).
2nd February
  • Elbasan (Albania) taken by Bulgarian forces (see October 7th, 1918).
  • German airship "L.-19" founders in the North Sea.
8th February
  • British Government request naval assistance from Japan (see November 14th, 1914 and April 17th, 1917).
  • French cruiser "Amiral Charner" sunk by submarine off Syrian coast.
9th February
  • Serbian Government set up at Corfu (see January 15th and May 7th).
  • German gunboat "Hedwig von Wissman" sunk by H.M.S. "Mimi" and "Fifi" [Ex-German Gunboat " Kingani"]. British command of Lake Tanganyika secured (see December 26th, 1915).
10th February
  • Military Service Act comes into operation in Great Britain (see January 24th and May 16th).
  • Remnant of Serbian Army concentrated at Corfu (see January 15th and April 3rd).
  • German Government send Note to united States Government stating that defensively armed merchantmen will be treated as belligerents from March 1st onwards (see 21st).
11th February
  • H.M.S. "Arethusa" sunk by mine in North Sea.
  • Italian detachment reaches Corfu (see January 11th and 15th).
12th February
  • Russian attack on Erzerum begins (see 16th, and January 11th).
13th February
  • Entente Governments notify Greece of forthcoming transfer of Montenegrin Army to Corfu (see 16th).
14th February
  • Entente Powers make declaration guaranteeing to Belgium eventual independence and indemnification.
15th February
  • Fifth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see March 17th).
  • Agreement concluded between British Government and chieftains of the Bakhtiari (Persia) for co-operation in protection of Persian oilfields.
  • British Order in Council extends powers of Ship Licensing Committee to all voyages (see November 10th, 1915).
16th February
  • Erzerum taken by the Russian forces (see 12th and March 12th, 1918).
  • Remnants of Montenegrin army land at Corfu (see 13th).
  • War Office take over anti-aircraft defence of London from the Admiralty, and become responsible for anti-aircraft defence generally throughout the kingdom.
  • War Office take over from the India Office control of operations in Mesopotamia.
17th February
  • Chios (Ægean) occupied by British forces.
  • Berat (Albania) occupied by Austrian forces (see July 10th, 1918).
  • Last German forces in South Cameroons cross border into Spanish territory for internment (see 18th).
18th February
  • Mush (Armenia) taken by Russian forces (see August 15th).
  • Mora, the last German post in the Cameroons, surrenders to the British. Conquest of the Cameroons by Entente forces completed (see March 3rd).
19th February
  • Major-General Tighe succeeded by Lieut.-General Smuts in command of British forces in East Africa (see April 16th, 1915, January 31st, 1916 and January 20th, 1917).
21st February
  • Battle of Verdun begins (see 25th and August 31st).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — Verdun

  • German airship "L.Z.-77" brought down by French gunfire at Revigny (night 21st/22nd).
  • German Government inform United States Government that defensively armed merchantmen will henceforth be regarded as cruisers (see 10th, 29th, and February 26th, 1917).
  • Lieut.-General Sir H.C. Sclater, Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain, resigns (appointed April 9th, 1914) (see 22nd).
  • Lieut.-General Sir C.F.N. Macready, Adjutant-General, British Expeditionary Force, France, resigns (see 22nd, and August 4th 1914).
22nd February
  • Lieut.-General Sir G. H. Fowke appointed Adjutant-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 21st).
  • Lieut.-General Sir C. F. N. Macready appointed Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain (see 21st, and August 30th, 1918).
23rd February
  • Portugal seizes German steamers in the Tagus (see March 9th).
  • Ministry of Blockade formed in Great Britain. Lord Robert Cecil appointed Minister of Blockade (see July 18th, 1918).
24th February
  • Provisional Government of Essad Pasha leaves Durazzo (see 28th, and October 4th, 1914).
25th February
  • Fort Douaumont (Verdun) stormed by German forces (25th/26th) (see 21st).
26th February
  • Senussi defeated by British forces in Action of Agagiya (Western Egypt) (see December 13th, 1915, and February 5th, 1917).
  • Kirmanshah (Western Persia) occupied by Russian forces (see January 13th and July 1st).
27th February
  • Durazzo captured by Austrian forces (see December 20th, 1915, and October 2nd, 1918).
28th February
  • The nucleus of a British air squadron formed to bomb German industrial centres (see June 5th, 1918).
  • Albanian Provisional Government of Essad Pasha set up at Naples (see 24th, and September 20th).
29th February
  • Action in North Sea between German raider "Greif" and British auxiliary cruiser "Alcantara": both sunk.
  • Blockade of the Cameroons raised (see 18th, and April 23rd, 1915).
  • German Government send note to United States Government stating that it is not intended to postpone the extended submarine campaign (see 10th, 21st, and March 1st).

MARCH 1916

 

1st March

  • German extended submarine campaign begins (see February 29th).
  • Hostilities between Sudan Government and Sultan of Darfur begin (see 16th, and December 31st).

2nd March

  • Bitlis (Armenia) taken by Russian forces (see August 15th).

3rd March

  • Agreement as to provisional administration of the Cameroons concluded between French and British Governments (see February 18th).

4th March

  • German raider "Moewe" returns to Bremen (Germany) (see December 26th, 1915, and November 26th, 1916).
  • Russian force landed at Atna for attack on Trebizond (see April 17th).

5th March

  • British advance on Kilimanjaro (East Africa) begins (see 10th and 21st).
  • Prince Firman Firma, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see 6th and December 25th, 1915).
  • Mohtashim ed Douleh, Persian Foreign Minister, resigns (see 6th and April 27th, 1915).

6th March

  • Mr. Baker appointed United States Secretary for War.
  • Sipahsalar A'zam appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 5th, and August 29th).
  • Sarim ed Douleh appointed Persian Foreign Minister (see 5th, and August 29th).

8th March

  • Second attempt to relieve Kut: British relieving force repulsed at Dujaila Redoubt (see January 21st and April 1st).

9th March

  • Germany declares war on Portugal (see February 23rd).

10th March

  • Taveta (East Africa) taken by British forces (see 5th and August 15th, 1914).

11th March

  • Action of Latema Nek (East Africa) begins (see 5th, 10th, and 12th).

12th March

  • Action of Latema Nek (East Africa) ends (see 11th).
  • Karind (West Persia) occupied by a Russian force (later withdrawn).
  • Allied Military Conference held at Chantilly regarding a general summer offensive.

13th March

  • New Moshi (East Africa) taken by British forces (see 5th and 12th).

14th March

  • Sollum (Western Egypt) reoccupied by British forces (see November 23rd, 1915).
  • Admiral von Tirpitz, German Minister of Marine, resigns (appointed in 1897) (see 15th).

15th March

  • Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic relations with Portugal.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Portugal.
  • Admiral von Capelle appointed German Minister of Marine (see 14th and August 13th, 1918).
  • Dr. A. José d'Almeida succeeds Dr. A. A. da Costa as Portuguese Premier (see November 29th, 1915 and April 25th, 1917).

16th March

  • Sudan force advances from Nahud into Darfur (see 1st, and May 22nd).
  • General Roques succeeds General Galliéni as French Minister for War (see October 30th, 1915, and March 17th, 1917).

17th March

  • Fifth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see February 15th).

18th March

  • Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) begins (see April 30th).

19th March

  • General Sir A. J. Murray takes over command of the Force in Egypt from General Sir John Maxwell.

20th March

  • M. Denys Cochin appointed French Under-Secretary of State for Blockade (see August 17th, 1917).

21st March

  • Action of Kahe (East Africa) brings the Kilimanjaro operations to and end (see 5th).
  • German forces retreat from Kilimanjaro area.

22nd March

  • Yuan-Shih-Kai relinquishes the throne of China (see December 11th, 1915, and June 6th, 1916).

24th March

  • S.S. "Sussex" (British) torpedoed by submarine in the English Channel (see April 18th).

28th March

  • Inter-Allied Conference in Paris (26th/28th). Declaration of Unity between Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Russia, and Serbia regarding military, economic, and diplomatic affairs, drawn up.

29th March

  • General Polivanov, Russian Minister for War, resigns and is succeeded by General Shuvaev (see June 26th, 1915 and January 17th, 1917).
  • Lieut.-General Oka, Japanese Minister for War, resigns (appointed April 16th, 1914) (see 30th).

30th March

  • Russian hospital ship "Portugal" sunk by submarine in the Black Sea.
  • Lieut.-General Kenichi Oshima appointed Japanese Minister for War (see 29th, and September 29th, 1918).

31st March

  • German airship raid on England (east coast). Airship "L.-15" brought down by gunfire near mouth of the Thames.

APRIL 1916

 

1st April

  • [Approximate date] End of period of German mastery of the air on the Western front (see October 1st, 1915).
  • Third Attempt to relieve Kut begins (see 5th and March 8th).

3rd April

  • Greek Government refuse overland route for transport of Serbian army from Corfu to Salonika (see 15th and February 10th).

4th April

  • General Brusilov appointed to command Russian Southern Armies (see June 4th).

5th April

  • Action of Falahiya (Mesopotamia) (see 1st and 6th).

6th April

  • Russian attack on Trebizond begins (see 17th and March 4th).
  • First attack on Sanna-i-Yat (see 5th and 9th).

9th April

  • Second attack on Sanna-i-Yat (see 6th and 22nd).

11th April

  • Kionga (German East Africa) occupied by Portuguese forces.

14th April

  • Constantinople and Adrianople attacked by aeroplanes of the Royal Naval Air Service from Mudros.

15th April

  • Serbian Army Headquarters land at Salonika from Corfu (see 3rd).

17th April

  • British attack on Kondoa Irangi (German East Africa) begins (see 19th).
  • Trebizond (Asia Minor) taken by Russian forces (see 6th and february 24th, 1918).
  • Italian Government issue decrees prohibiting trading with Germany (see March 1st, 1915).

18th April

  • Action of Bait Aissa (Mesopotamia) (17th/18th).
  • United States Government send note to German Government on "Sussex" case (see March 24th) and submarine policy in general (see February 10th).

19th April

  • Kondoa Irangi (German East Africa) taken by British forces (see 17th and June 9th).
  • Field-Marshal von der Goltz (see December 10th, 1914, and November 24th, 1915) assassinated by an Albanian officer.

20th April

  • Russian troops from the far East arrive at Marseilles (see July 30th).
  • Disguised German transport "Aud" sinks herself after capture while trying to land arms on Irish coast.
  • Roger Casement lands in Ireland from a German submarine and is arrested (see 24th, and August 3rd).

22nd April

  • Third attack on Sanna-i-Yat repulsed (see 9th, 24th and 29th).

24th April

  • Outbreak of Rebellion in Ireland (see May 1st).
  • Final attempt to succour Kut: loss of H.M.S. "Julnar" (see 29th).
  • Laying of Belgian coast barrage commenced by British navy.

25th April

  • Lowestoft (Suffolk) and Yarmouth (Norfolk) raided by German battle cruiser squadron (see November 26th).

26th April

  • French and Russian Governments conclude "Sykes-Picot" agreement for eventual partition of Asia Minor (see May 9th and May 23rd).
  • Agreement signed at Berlin for transfer of British and German wounded and sick prisoners of war to Switzerland (see May 13th).

27th April

  • Martial law proclaimed in Dublin and the county (see 24th).
  • H.M.S. "Russell" sunk by mine in the Mediterranean.

29th April

  • Capitulation of Kut (see 22nd, May 19th, 1916 and December 7th, 1915).
  • "Havre Declaration" signed by France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan and Russia guaranteeing integrity of Belgian Congo.

30th April

  • Battle of Lake Naroch ends (see March 18th).

MAY 1916

 

1st May

  • Collapse of Irish Rebellion - leaders surrender (see 3rd, and April 24th).

3rd May

  • German airship "L.-20" returning from raid on Scotland, wrecked at Stavanger (Norway).
  • Three Irish rebel leaders executed (see 1st).

4th May

  • German airship "L.-7" destroyed off the Slesvig coast.

5th May

  • German airship "L.Z.-85" brought down by British gunfire at Salonika.

7th May

  • Qasr-i-Shirin (Western Persia) occupied by Russian forces (see December 15th, 1915, June 20th, 1916 and March 25th, 1917).
  • Serbian Government set up at Salonika (see February 9th, 1916 and December 9th, 1918).

9th May

  • British and French Governments conclude "Sykes-Picot" agreement as to eventual partition of Asia Minor (see April 26th and May 23rd).
  • Lieut.-General Sir George Milne succeeds Lieut.-General Sir Bryan Mahon as General Officer Commanding British Forces, Salonika (see October 28th, 1915).

10th May

  • Agreement signed at Berlin re employment of British and German prisoners of war (see 29th).

11th May

  • Kwash (East Persia) occupied by British forces.

13th May

  • Agreement signed at London for transfer of British and German wounded and sick prisoners of war to Switzerland (see April 26th, 1916 and July 2nd and September 11th, 1917).

14th May

  • Austrian offensive in the Trentino begins (see June, 3rd).

15th May

  • Allied blockade of the Hejaz coast to assist revolt of Sherif of Mecca commenced (see June 7th).
  • Rowanduz (Northern Mesopotania) occupied by Russian forces.
  • Khanaqin (North-East of Baghdad) taken by Russian forces (see June 5th).

16th May

  • Second Military Service Bill extending compulsion to married men passes the British House of Commons (see 25th, and February 10th).
  • Agreement concluded between Great Britain and France regarding respective claims in Turkish territories (see August 18th, 1917).

17th May

  • Air Board formed in Great Britain (see January 3rd, 1918).

18th May

  • Detachment of Cossacks from Russian force in West Persia effects junction with British army on the Tigris.

19th May

  • Turkish Army evacuates the As Sinn position and withdraws to lint (see April 29th and December 13th).

21st May

  • German attack on Vimy Ridge.

22nd May

  • Sultan of Darfur defeated by Sudan force in affair of Beringiya (Darfur) (see 23rd, March 16th and November 6th).

23rd May

  • El Fasher (capital of Darfur) occupied by Sudan force (see 22nd).
  • British Government notify Russian Government of their recognition of Franco-Russian "Sykes-Picot" agreement as to eventual partition of Asia Minor (see April 26th, May 9th and September 1st).

24th May

  • Mamakhatun (Armenia) taken by Russian forces (see 31st).

25th May

  • British advance from Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland across the frontier into German East Africa begins (see 27th).
  • Second Military Service Act becomes law in Great Britain (see 16th and June 8th).

26th May

  • Fort Rupel (Greek frontier of Macedonia) occupied by Bulgarian and German forces (see 31st).
  • United States Government send Note to British Government protesting against search of mails.

27th May

  • Neu Langenburg (German East Africa) occupied by British forces (see 25th).

29th May

  • Agreement signed at London re the employment of British and German prisoners of war (see 10th).

31st May

  • Battle of Jutland begins (see June 1st) First British aerial co-operation with fleet in action. [British ships sunk - "Indefatigable", "Invincible", "Queen Mary", "Black Prince", "Defence" and "Warriror" German ships sunk - "Pommern", "Lützow", "Wiesbaden", "Rostock", "Frauenlob", "Elbing"]
  • Mamakhatun retaken by Turkish forces (see 24th).
  • Entente Goverments protest to Greece against Bulgarian occupation of Fort Rupel (see 26th).

JUNE 1916

 

1st June

  • Battle of Jutland ends (see May 31st).

2nd June

  • Battle of Mount Sorrel (Ypres) begins (see 13th).
  • Fort Vaux (Verdun) stormed by German forces [German date. The French claim a foothold till the 7th.] (see November 1st).

3rd June

  • End of the main Austrian offensive in the Trentino (see 16th and May 14th).
  • Allied Commander proclaims martial law in city of Salonika (see October 3rd, 1915).

4th June

  • Russian offensive ("Brusilov's Offensive") begins [The first phase of this offensive is known to the Germans as the "Battle of Wosuzka-Sereth"] (see 11th and August 17th).

5th June

  • Sherif of Mecca begins revolt against Turkish rule (see 7th, 9th, and October 24th, 1915).
  • H.M.S. "Hampshire" sunk by mine off Scottish coast. Field Marshal Earl Kitchener and his Staff drowned (see August 6th, 1914).
  • Turkish offensive into West Persia begins [Approximate date.]: Khanaqin evacuated by Russian forces (see May 15th).

6th June

  • Attack on Medina by revolting Arabs repulsed by Turkish garrison (see 5th).
  • "Pacific blockade" of Greece by Entente Powers begins (see 22nd).
  • Yuan-Shih-Kai, President of China, dies (date of election October 6th, 1913). Li-Yuan-Hung elected President (see March 22nd, 1916 and July 6th, 1917).

7th June

  • Sherif of Mecca issues proclamation denouncing the Committee of Union and Progress and proclaiming the Independence of the Hejaz (see 5th, and October 29th).

8th June

  • Bismarckburg (German East Africa) taken by British forces (see May 25th).
  • Second Compulsory Service Act comes into operation in Great Britain (see May 25th and April 10th, 1918).

9th June

  • Jidda (Arabia) captured by Arab forces (see 5th).
  • Action of Mkaramo (on Northern Railway in German East Africa).
  • German attack on Kondoa Irangi (East Africa) begins (see 10th and April 19th).

10th June

  • Turkish garrison of Mecca surrenders to the Sherif (see 5th).
  • German attack on Kondoa Irangi repulsed (see 9th).
  • Compulsory Service Bill passed in New Zealand (see September 1st).

11th June

  • "Brusilov's Offensive" continued (see 4th); Battle of the Strypa begins (see 30th).
  • Signor Salandra, Italian Premier, resigns (see 15th, and May 16th, 1915).

12th June

  • Kirman (Persia) occupied by British forces.
  • Zaleszczyki (Galicia) taken by Russian forces (see July 30th, 1917).

13th June

  • Battle of Mount Sorrel (Ypres) ends (see 2nd).

14th June

  • Allied Economic Conference reassembles in Paris (see 27th, and June 3rd, 1915).

15th June

  • Signor Boselli appointed Italian Prime Minister (see 11th and October 25th, 1917).

16th June

  • Italian counter-offensive in the Trentino begins (see 3rd and July 7th).

17th June

  • Czernowitz (Bukovina) reoccupied by Russian forces (see February 17th, 1915 and August 3rd, 1917).

19th June

  • Handeni (German East Africa) occupied by British forces.

20th June

  • Qasr-i-Shirin (West Persia) taken by Turkish forces (see May 7th, 1916 and March 25th, 1917).

21st June

  • Radautz (Bukovina) taken by Russian forces.
  • Entente Governments send Note to Greece demanding demobilisation and change of Government. (Accepted.) (See 27th.)
  • Greek Cabinet (Skouloudhis) resign (see November 6th, 1915).
  • M. Zaimis forms new Ministry (see September 11th).

22nd June

  • "Pacific blockade" of Greece suspended (see 6th).

23rd June

  • Fort Thiaumont (Verdun) finally stormed by German forces [Bulk of position was captured on May 23rd and this date marks the limit of the German advance on Verdun.] (see 30th).

24th June

  • Austrian forces driven out of The Bukovina.

27th June

  • Greek Government order general demobilisation (see 21st).
  • Recommendations of Allied Economic Conference ratified (see 14th).

30th June

  • Fort Thiaumont (Verdun) retaken by French forces (see 23rd and July 1st).
  • Battle of the Strypa ends (see 11th).
  • British Government conclude further agreement with the Netherlands Overseas Trust for rationing of Holland (see November 23rd, 1915).

JULY 1916

 

1st July

  • Battles of the Somme 1916 begin with Battle of Albert 1916 (1st/13th) (see November 18th).
  • 07:28 Lochnagar Mine exploded, La Boisselle, France.

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

  • Contact patrol, or liaison with infantry, first instituted in the Royal Flying Corps.
  • Kirmanshah (Persia) reoccupied by Turkish forces (see February 26th, 1916 and March 11th, 1917).

2nd July

  • Battle of Baranovichi begins (see July 9th).

3rd July

  • Russian and Japanese Governments conclude treaty with regard to future policy in the Far East.

7th July

  • Italian counter-offensive in the Trentino ends (see June 16th).
  • Tanga (German East Africa) occupied by British forces (see November 5th, 1914).
  • Mr. Lloyd George succeeds Lord Kitchener as Secretary of State for War, Great Britain (see June 5th and December 11th).
  • British Government issue Order in Council rescinding Declaration of London of 1909. French Govermnent issue similar order (see October 29th, 1914 and November 6th, 1914).

9th July

  • Battle of Baranovichi ends (see July 2nd).

10th July

  • German commercial submarine "Deutschland" arrives at Norfolk (Va.), from Bremen (see August 23rd).
  • Russian hospital ship "Vpered" sunk by submarine in the Black Sea.

11th July

  • Seaham harbour (on coast of Durham) shelled by German submarine.

12th July

  • Mamakhatun (Armenia) again taken by Russian forces (see May 31st).

14th July

  • Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Somme) begins (see July 17th).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

  • Mwanza, on Victoria Nyanza (German Fast Africa) taken by British forces.
  • Inter-Allied Conference on finance held in London (14th/15th).

15th July

  • Battle of Delville Wood (Somme) begins (see September 3rd).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

17th July

  • Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Somme) ends (see July 14th).

18th July

  • Treaty with Ibn Sa'ud, Emir of Nejd, ratified by British Government (see December 26th, 1915).

19th July

  • Battle of Fromelles (France) (19th/20th).

    This combined action by British and Australian troops was partly intended to divert the German's attention away from the Battles of the Somme just to the south, combined with an operation to retake the ground just north of Fromelles (see July 1st).

  • Turkish offensive from Oghratina against the Suez Canal begins (see August 4th).

20th July

  • Greek Government conclude new loan with the Entente (£800,000) (see November 8th, 1915).

22nd July

  • M. Sazonov, Russian Foreign Minister, resigns [Appointed in 1910.] and is succeeded by M. Stürmer (see February 1st and November 24th).

23rd July

  • Battle of Pozières Ridge (Somme) begins (see September 3rd).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

25th July

  • Reconstituted Serbian army comes into action on Salonika front (see April 15th).
  • Erzinjan (Armenia) captured by Russian forces. [This was the furthest point west reached by Russian forces. It was evacuated subsequently without further fighting.]

27th July

  • Yenbo, port of Medina, surrenders to Arab forces (see June 5th).
  • Captain Fryatt, of British S.S. "Brussels" shot by order of a German court-martial in Belgium.

28th July

  • United States Government formally protest to British Government against "Black List" policy (see October 22nd, 1914, December 23rd, 1915 and January 26th, 1916).

29th July

  • German Government send Note to United States Government rejecting British offer to permit passage of foodstuffs to Poland from United States of America.

30th July

  • First aerial operations carried out by combined French and British air services on French Western front.
  • Russian troops from France land at Salonika and join Allied force (see April 20th).

31st July

  • Kilimatinde (German East Africa) taken by British forces.

AUGUST 1916

 

2nd August

  • Italian Dreadnought "Leonardo da Vinci" sunk by internal explosion in harbour at Taranto.

3rd August

  • Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika (German East Africa), occupied by Belgian forces.
  • Roger Casement executed (see April 20th).

4th August

  • Battle of Rumani (Sinai) (4th/5th) (see July 19th).

5th August

  • Advance of main body of British force in East Africa through the Nguru Hills begins (see 11th).

6th August

  • Battle of Gorizia (6th Battle of the Isonzo) begins (see 17th).

8th August

  • Portuguese Government decide to extend military co-operation to Europe (see November 23rd, 1914, December 4th, 1914 and January 3rd, 1917).

9th August

  • Gorizia taken by Italian forces (see 6th).

10th August

  • Stanislau again taken by Russian forces (see June 8th, 1915 and July 24th, 1917).
  • Hamadan (Western Persia) taken by Turkish forces [Approximate date.] (see December 14th, 1915, and March 2nd, 1917).

11th August

  • Mpwapwa (German East Africa) occupied by British forces (see 5th).

12th August

  • Italian troops land at Salonika and join Allied force (see October 3rd, 1915 and July 30th, 1916).

15th August

  • Mush and Bitlis (Armenia) reoccupied by Turkish forces (see 24th, February 18th and March 2nd).
  • Bagamoyo (German East African coast) occupied by British forces.

17th August

  • Battle of Gorizia (6th Battle of the Isonzo) ends (see 6th).
  • End of "Brusilov's Offensive" [Approximate date.] (see June 4th).
  • Battle of Florina [German name and dates.] (Macedonia) begins (see 19th).
  • Rumanian Government conclude agreement with Entente Powers regarding intervention (see 27th and January 22nd).
  • Military convention signed at Bukharest between Entente Powers and Rumania.

19th August

  • H.M.S. "Falmouth" and "Nottingham" sunk by submarine.
  • Battle of Florina [German name and dates.] ends (see 17th).

22nd August

  • Kilosa (German East Africa) taken by British forces.

23rd August

  • German commercial submarine "Deutschland" returns to Germany (see July 10th).
  • Battle of Rayat (Armenia).

24th August

  • Bitlis and Mush again taken by Russian forces (see 15th, and April 30th, 1917).
  • Anglo-French Conference on finance held at Calais.

25th August

  • Russian forces cross the Danube into the Dobrudja to assist the Rumanian forces (see 17th, 27th, and September 2nd).

26th August

  • Morogoro (German East Africa) taken by British forces.

27th August

  • Rumanian Government order mobilisation and declare war on Austria-Hungary (see 17th and 28th).

28th August

  • Rumanian forces cross Hungarian frontier and invade Transylvania (see 27th).
  • Germany declares war on Rumania (see 27th).
  • Italy declares war on Germany (see May 24th, 1915).
  • General Sir Stanley Maude succeeds Lieut.-General Sir Percy Lake as Commander-in-Chief, Mesopotamia (see January 19th and November 18th, 1917).

29th August

  • Brasov (Transylvania) occupied by Rumanian forces (see 28th, and October 7th).
  • Iringa (German East Africa) taken by British forces.
  • Field-Marshal von Hindenburg succeeds General von Falkenhayn as Chief of the General Staff of the German Field Armies (see September 14th and November 27th, 1914), with General von Ludendorff as Chief Quartermaster-General (see October 27th, 1918).
  • Sipahsalar A'zam, Persian Prime Minister, resigns, and is succeeded by Vossuq ed Douleh, who also acts as Foreign Minister (see March 6th, 1916, and May 29th, 1917).

30th August

  • Rumania severs diplomatic relations with Bulgaria (see September 1st).
  • Turkey declares war on Rumania (see 28th).
  • Venizelist revolt in Salonika (see September 25th and October 9th).

31st August

  • Battle of Verdun ends. (see February 21st) [This is the French date for the close of " The Defensive Battle of Verdun." The German list carries the battle up to September 9th.]

SEPTEMBER 1916

 

1st September

  • Bulgaria declares war on Rumania (see August 30th).
  • Sibiu (Transylvania) taken by Rumanian forces (see 26th).
  • Russian and British Governments conclude "Sykes-Picot" agreement as to eventual partition of Asia Minor (see April 26th, and May 9th and 23rd).
  • Compulsory Military Service Bill in New Zealand comes into operation (see June 10th).

2nd September

  • German and Bulgarian forces invade the Dobrudja (see August 25th, 1916, January 6th, 1917 and December 3rd, 1918).
  • German raid by fourteen airships (greatest number to attack simultaneously) on London and other parts of England. Airship "S.L.-11" destroyed by aeroplane at Cuffley (night 2nd/3rd).
  • German ships in Piræus harbour seized by the Allies.

3rd September

  • Battle of Guillemont (Somme) begins (see 6th).
  • Battles of Delville Wood and Pozières (Somme) end (see July 15th and 23rd).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

4th September

  • Dar es Salaam (German East Africa) surrenders to British forces (see August 8th, 1914).

6th September

  • Battle of Guillemont (Somme) ends (see 3rd).
  • Tutrakan (Dobrudja) taken by Bulgarian forces (see 2nd).

7th September

  • British pursuit of retreating German force in East Africa checked at Affair of Kisaki.
  • Kilwa, on East African coast, occupied by British naval forces.

8th September

  • Orsova (Hungary) occupied by Rumanian forces (see August 28th and November 22nd).

9th September

  • Battle of Ginchy (Somme).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

10th September

  • Silistra (Dobrudja) taken by German and Bulgarian forces (see 2nd).

11th September

  • M. Zaimis, Greek Premier, resigns (see 16th and June 21st).

14th September

  • Seventh Battle of the Isonzo begins (see 18th).

15th September

  • Battle of Flers-Courcelette (Somme) begins (see 22nd). "Tanks" in action for the, first time (see July 28th, 1917).
  • Aeroplane co-operation with tanks instituted by the British Air Force.

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

16th September

  • M. Kalogeropoulos forms new Greek Ministry (see 11th and October 3rd).

17th September

  • Lindi, on East African wash, occupied by British naval forces.

18th September

  • Greek IVth Army Corps at Kavala surrenders voluntarily to German forces.
  • Seventh Battle of the Isonzo ends (see 14th).

19th September

  • Tabora (capital of German East Africa) occupied by Belgian forces.
  • Allies commence blockade of Greek Macedonian coast from mouth of the Struma to mouth of the Mesta (see December 15th, 1915).

20th September

  • Albanian Government of Essad Pasha set up in Salonika (see February 28th).

22nd September

  • Battle of Flers-Courcelette (Somme) ends (see 15th).
  • Turkish garrison of Taif (Hejaz) surrenders to Arab forces (see June 5th).

23rd September

  • Airship raid on England (East Coast and London) involving serious casualties (170, mostly civilian); "L.-32" destroyed by aeroplane at Billericay; "L.-33" brought down by gunfire in Essex (night 23rd/24th).

24th September

  • Krupp works at Essen bombed by French aeroplanes.

25th September

  • Battle of Morval (Somme) begins (see 28th).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

  • M. Venizelos withdraws from Athens (see 29th and August 30th).

26th September

  • Battle of Thiepval Ridge (Somme) begins (see 28th).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

  • Battle of Sibiu (Transylvania) begins (see 29th).

28th September

  • Battles of Morval and Thiepval Ridge end (see 25th and 26th).

29th September

  • Battle of Sibiu ends: city retaken by Austrian forces (see 1st and 26th).
  • M. Venizelos and Admiral Condouriotis announce formation of Greek Provisional Government in Crete in opposition to the Government at Athens (see December 19th).

OCTOBER 1916

 

1st October

  • Battle of le Transloy (Somme) begins (see 18th).
  • Battle of the Ancre Heights (Somme) begins (see November 11th).

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

  • German airship "L.-31" destroyed by aeroplane at Potters Bar, near London (night 1st/2nd).

3rd October

  • Greek Cabinet (Kalogeropoulos) resign (see 10th and September 16th).

5th October

  • Battle of the Cerna and Monastir begins (see November 19th and December 11th).

7th October

  • Battle of Brasov (Transylvania) (7th/9th): city retaken by Austro-German forces (see August 29th).

8th October

  • German submarine "U.-53" captures and destroys five ships outside Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A.

9th October

  • Eighth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see 12th).
  • M. Venizelos arrives at Salonika (see August 30th and September 25th and 29th).
  • Marshal-Count Masakata Terauchi succeeds Marquis Okuma [Appointed Prime Minister April 16th, 1914.] as Japanese Prime Minister and Viscount Ishii as Acting Foreign Minister (see September 21st, 1915, November 20th, 1916 and September 29th, 1918).

10th October

  • Entente Governments send ultimatum to Greek Government demanding surrender of the Greek fleet (see 11th).
  • Professor Lambros forms new Greek Ministry (see 3rd, September 29th, 1916 and May 3rd, 1917).

11th October

  • Greek Government accept Entente demands (see 10th).

12th October

  • Eighth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see 9th).

13th October

  • Norwegian Government issue orders prohibiting belligerent submarines from using Norwegian territorial waters (see February 1st, 1917).

14th October

  • Transylvanian frontier of Rumania crossed by German forces (see August 28th and September 29th).

17th October

  • Affairs in the Dakhla Oasis (West Egypt) begin (see 22nd).

18th October

  • Battle of the Transloy Ridges (Somme) ends (see 1st).

20th October

  • Russian battleship "lmperatritsa Mariya" destroyed by internal explosion at Sevastopol.
  • Anglo-French Conference held at Calais to discuss Greek participation in the war.

21st October

  • Count Stürgkh, Austrian Premier, murdered (appointed Premier November 3rd, 1911) (see 28th)

22nd October

  • Constanza (Dobrudja) captured by German and Bulgarian forces. Affairs in the Dakhla Oasis end (see 17th).

24th October

  • "First Offensive Battle" of Verdun begins [French name and date.] (see December 18th). Fort Douaumont recaptured by French forces (see February 25th, August 31st and November 1st).

25th October

  • Cernavoda (Dobrudja) captured by Bulgarian forces (see 22nd).

26th October

  • First German destroyer raid in Dover Straits (night 26th/27th) (see April 20th, 1917).

28th October

  • Dr. E. von Körber appointed Austrian Premier (see 21st and December 14th).
  • British hospital ship "Galeka" totally wrecked by mine off Havre.

29th October

  • Sherif of Mecca proclaimed "King of the Arabs" (see June 7th and November 4th).

30th October

  • Lieut.-General von Stein succeeds Lieut.-General Wild von Hohenborn as German Minister for War (see January 21st, 1915, and October 9th, 1918).

31st October

  • Ninth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see November 4th).

NOVEMBER 1916

 

1st November

  • Fort Vaux (Verdun) recaptured by French forces (see June 2nd).

4th November

  • Ninth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see October 31st).
  • Coronation of the "King of the Arabs" at Mecca (see October 29th and December 15th).

5th November

  • Germany and Austria proclaim an "Independent State of Poland" (see April 3rd, 1915 and March 30th, 1917).

6th November

  • Affair of Gyuba (Darfur). Forces of Ali Dinar, ex-Sultan of Darfur, defeated by Sudan force. Ali Dinar killed (see May 22nd).

7th November

  • Mr. Wilson re-elected President of the United States.

11th November

  • Battle of the Ancre Heights (Somme) ends (see October 1st).

12th November

  • Shiraz (South Persia) occupied by British forces.

13th November

  • Battle of the Ancre 1916 begins (see 18th): Beaumont-Hamel stormed by British forces.

Battles of the Western Front: Grinding Battles of Attrition in 1916 — the Somme

15th November

  • Third Affair of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).
  • British advance into Sinai begins (see December 21st).
  • Inter-Allied Conference held in Paris to discuss: (a) the relations between Governments and Staffs; (b) policy and strategy; (c) Greece; (d) Poland. (Conference continued on 16th.)

16th November

  • Battle of Târga-Jiu, Rumania (16th/17th).

18th November

  • Battle of the Ancre, 1916, ends (see 13th).
  • Battles of the Somme 1916 end (see July 1st, 1916, March 14th and April 5th, 1917 and March 21st, 1918).

19th November

  • Monastir (Serbia) captured by Allied forces (see October 5th, 1916 and December 2nd, 1915).
  • Entente Governments demand dismissal of Ministers of Central Powers at Athens and surrender of Greek military material (see December 1st).

20th November

  • Herr von Jagow, German Foreign Minister, resigns (appointed January 1913) (see 21st).
  • Count Terauchi relinquishes temporary appointment as Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (see 21st, aud October 9th).

21st November

  • Craiova (Rumania) taken by German forces.
  • British hospital ship "Britannic" sunk by mine in Ægean Sea.
  • Dr. Artur Zimmermann appointed German Foreign Minister (see 20th and July 15th, 1917).
  • Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria dies. Archduke Karl succeeds to the throne.
  • Viscount Motono appointed Japanese Minister for foreign Affairs (see 20th and April 21st, 1918).

22nd November

  • Orsova (Hungary) taken by Austro-German forces (see September 8th).
  • German commerce raider "Seeadler" leaves Germany [Approximate date.] (see August 2nd, 1917).

23rd November

  • Greek Provisional Government (M. Venizelos) at Salonika declare war on Germany and Bulgaria (see September 29th, 1916 and June 27th, 1917).
  • British hospital ship "Braemar Castle" damaged and beached in Ægean Sea - probably mined.
  • Mackensen's army effects passage of the Danube at Islaz and Simnitza.

24th November

  • M. Stürmer, Russian Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns and is succeeded by M. Trepov as Premier (see February 1st, July 22nd and December 2nd and 12th, 1916, and January 8th, 1917).

25th November

  • The German air forces established as a separate branch of the German army.

26th November

  • Second German naval raid on Lowestoft (see April 25th).
  • French battleship "Suffren" sunk by submarine in the Bay of Biscay.
  • German raider "Moewe" sails from Kiel on second cruise (see March 4th, 1916 and March 22nd, 1917).

27th November

  • German airship raid on East coast of England: airship "L.-34" destroyed by aeroplane off Hartlepool and "L.-21" destroyed by aeroplane off Yarmouth (night 27th/28th).

28th November

  • First German daylight aeroplane raid on London (by single aeroplane) (see December 21st, 1914 and May 7th, June 13th and July 7th, 1917).

29th November

  • Admiral Sir David Beatty appointed to succeed Admiral Sir John Jellicoe as Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet (see December 4th).

30th November

  • Allied forces landed at the Piræus (see December 1st).

DECEMBER 1916

 

1st December

  • Battle of the Arges (Rumania) begins (see 5th).
  • Rumanian Government removed from Bukharest to Jassy (see November 30th, 1918).
  • Greek Government refuse Entente demands (see November 19th).
  • Allied forces withdrawn from Athens and the Piræus after conflicts with Greeks (see November 30th, 1916 and January 24th, 1917).
  • German commerce raider "Wolff" leaves Germany [Approximate date.] (see February 24th, 1918).
  • Last meeting of War Committee of British Cabinet (see 9th and November 3rd, 1915).

2nd December

  • Russian Premier (M. Trepov) announces that the Allies have acknowledged Russia's right to Constantinople and the Straits (see March 12th and April 12th, 1915).

3rd December

  • Funchal (Madeira) bombarded by German submarine (see December 12th, 1917).
  • Admiral Sir Henry Jackson, First Sea Lord, Great Britain, resigns (see 4th, and May 28th, 1915).
  • British and French Governments conclude agreement (the "Clementel Agreement"): (1) to unite British ships in French service to those already employed; (2) to co-ordinate Allied tonnage; (3) to create inter-allied bureau to centralise charter of neutral shipping (see January 6th, November 3rd, and December 3rd, 1917).

4th December

  • Admiral Sir John Jellicoe appointed First Sea Lord, Great Britain (see 3rd, August 4th, 1914, November 29th, 1916 and December 26th, 1917).
  • Mr. Asquith, British Premier, resigns (appointed April 8th, 1908) (see 7th).

5th December

  • Battle of the Arges (Roumania) ends (see 1st).

6th December

  • Bukharest capitulates to the German forces (see November 30th, 1918).
  • Massacre of Venizelists in Athens (see 1st, and November 23rd).

7th December

  • Mr. Lloyd George succeeds Mr. Asquith as British Premier (see 4th).
  • Entente Governments announce forthcoming blockade of Greece from December 8th (see 1st).

8th December

  • Murman Railway (from Murmansk to Petrograd) declared open.
  • Entente Powers begin blockade of Greece (see 7th).

9th December

  • War Cabinet formed in Great Britain.[The War Committee (see November 3rd, 1915) which held their last meeting on December 1st ceased to function on the formation of the War Cabinet which undertook the duties of the War Committee.] First Meeting held (see 1st).

11th December

  • Battle of the Cerna and Monastir ends (see October 5th).
  • Italian battleship "Regina Margherita" sunk on Italian minefield.
  • Allied Note presented to Greece demanding complete demobilisation (see 1st and 14th).
  • Mr. Lloyd George's Coalition Ministry formed in Great Britain (see 7th, and May 25th, 1915).
  • Lord Derby appointed Secretary of State for War, Great Britain, in succession to Mr. Lloyd George (see September 30th, 1915, and July 7th and April 20th, 1918).
  • Viscount Grey, British Secretary for Foreign Affairs, resigns. (Appointed December 11th, 1905.)
  • Mr. Arthur Balfour, First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain, resigns, and is appointed Secretary for Foreign Affairs, (see 12th and May 28th, 1915).
  • Ministry of Labour formed in Great Britain.

12th December

  • Reorganisation of French Government. M. Briand remains Premier. New War Cabinet of five Ministers formed. General Nivelle becomes Commander-in-Chief of French Northern and North Eastern Groups of Armies (see May 15th, 1917), and General Joffre (see December 3rd, 1915) becomes Technical Military Adviser to the War Cabinet.
  • Sir Edward Carson succeeds Mr Balfour as First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain (see 11th and July 19th, 1917).
  • M. Pokrovski appointed Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs (see November 24th, 1916, and January 27th, 1917).
  • Identic Notes presented by Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, German and Turkish Governments to United States Ambassadors in their respective countries requesting them to inform the Governments of the Entente powers that the four Allied Central Powers are ready to negotiate for peace (see 30th).

13th December

  • British operations for the capture of Kut begin (see May 19th, 1916, and January 9th, 1917).

14th December

  • Entente Powers send Ultimatum to Greece; withdrawal of entire Greek Armies from Thessaly demanded (see 11th and 15th).
  • Dr. von Körber, Austrian Premier, resigns (see 21st, and October 28th).

15th December

  • Greek Government accept Allied Ultimatum (see 14th).
  • British Government recognise the "King of the Arabs" as the King of the Hejaz (see November 4th).

17th December

  • Greek Government issue warrant for arrest of M. Venizelos on charge of high treason (see August 30th and September 29th, 1916 and June 26th, 1917).

18th December

  • "First Offensive Battle" of Verdun ends (see October 24th, 1916 and August 20th, 1917).
  • President Wilson issues Circular Note suggesting negotiations for peace (see 26th).

19th December

  • British Government decide to institute National Service (see November 1st, 1917).
  • British Government decide to initiate imperial Conference (see March 20th, 1917).
  • British Government decide to recognise Government of M. Venizelos (see September 20th).

21st December

  • El Arish (Sinai) occupied by British forces (see November 15th).
  • Count Heinrich Clam-Martinitz appointed Austrian Premier (see 14th, and June 18th, 1917).

22nd December

  • Ministry of Food formed in Great Britain (see 26th).
  • Ministry of Pensions formed in Great Britain.
  • Ministry of Shipping formed in Great Britain (see January 27th).
  • Count Czernin succeeds Baron Burian as Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs (see January 13th, 1915, and April 15th, 1918).

23rd December

  • Affair of Magdhaba (Sinai).

26th December

  • German, Austro-Hungarian and Turkish Governments send reply to President Wilson's Note; immediate meeting of delegates suggested (see 18th, and January 10th, 1917).
  • Anglo-French Conference meets in London to discuss the German and United States "Peace Notes"; also the situation in Greece, the Salonika expedition and the division of the front in the Western Theatre. (Discussion continued on the 27th and 28th.)
  • General Joffre created Marshal of France (see 12th).
  • Lord Devonport appointed Food Controller, Great Britain (see 22nd).

27th December

  • French battleship "Gaulois" sunk by submarine in the Mediterranean.
  • British and French Governments conclude agreement regarding temporary administration of Togoland (see August 26th and 31st, 1914).

30th December

  • Entente Governments reject German peace proposals (see 12th and January 11th, 1917).
  • British and Chinese Governments conclude agreement for employment of Chinese labour in France.
  • Bulgarian Government reply accepting President Wilson's Note (see 18th, and January 10th, 1917).

31st December

  • Campaign of the Sudan forces in Darfur comes to an end (see March 1st).
  • Raspútin murdered in Petrograd.