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1915 - Timeline

1916 - Timeline

1917 - Timeline

1918 - Timeline

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History of the Great War

JANUARY 1917

3rd January

  • Focsani (Rumania) taken by German forces.
  • First units of Portuguese Expeditionary Force land in France (see August 8th, 1916, and June 17th, 1917).
  • Action of Beho-Beho (East Africa) begins (see 4th).
  • General Sir Douglas Haig promoted Field-Marshal (see December 19th, 1915).

4th January

  • Russian battleship "Peresvyet" sunk by mine off Port Said.
  • Action of Beho-Beho ends (see 3rd).

5th January

  • Braila (Rumania) taken by German forces.
  • Inter-Allied Conference assembles in Rome to discuss co-operation, and the questions of Macedonia, Greece, the command of the Salonika expedition and to convene a shipping conference. (Discussions continued on the 6th and 7th.)

6th January

  • Last Russian and Rumanian forces evacuate the Dobrudja (see August 25th, 1916, and December 3rd, 1918).
  • "lnter-Allied Chartering Committee" established for chartering shipping (see December 3rd, 1916 and November 3rd, 1917).

8th January

  • M. Trepov, Russian Premier, resigns and is succeeded by Prince Golitsin (see November 24th, 1916 and March 13th, 1917).

9th January

  • Battle of Kut, 1917, begins (see December 13th, 1916 and February 23rd and 24th, 1917).
  • Action of Rafah (Sinai). Last Turkish troops in Sinai recross the frontier (see January 26th, 1915).
  • H.M.S. "Cornwallis" sunk by submarine in Mediterranean.

10th January

  • Entente Governments send joint reply to President Wilson's Note. Allied war aims outlined (see December 18th, 1916).
  • Belgian Government reply, to President Wilson's Note placing themselves in hands of Allies (see December 18th, 1916 and September 15th, 1918).

11th January

  • Settlement Treaty signed at Berlin between Germany and Turkey (see April 10th, 1918).
  • Austro-Hungarian and German Governments issue Note repudiating responsibility for continuance of war, and declaring that they will prosecute the war to successful end (see December 12th and 30th, 1916, and September 15th, 1918) .

14th January

  • Japanese battle cruiser "Tsukuba" sunk by internal explosion in harbour.

15th January

  • ltaly accedes to Franco-British Convention as to naval "prizes" (see November 9th, 1914).

17th January

  • General Shuvaev, Russian Minister for War, resigns and is succeeded by General Byelyaev (see March 29th, 1916, and March 13th, 1917).
  • lnter-Allied Conference ["Commission de Ravitaillement"] (Russia, France, Great Britain and Italy represented) assembles at Petrograd to discuss war policy, finance, supplies and co-operation (see February 20th).

19th January

  • German Government send instructions to German Minister in Mexico (von Eckhardt) to negotiate alliance with Mexico and Japan against the United States (see February 28th).

20th January

  • General Hoskins succeeds General Smuts in command of British forces, East Africa (see February 19th, 1916 and May 30th, 1917).

23rd January

  • Harwich flotilla action with German 6th torpedo boat flotilla in the North Sea: H.M.S. "Simoom" sunk.

24th January

  • Wejh (Arabia) captured by Arab forces.
  • Greek Government make formal apology to the Allies for the occurrences of December 1st, 1916.
  • Allied Naval Conference held in London as to policy in Mediterranean (see November 30th).

25th January

  • Southwold and Wangford on the Suffolk coast shelled by German destroyers.

27th January

  • M. Pokrovski, Russian Foreign Minister, resigns (see December 12th, 1916 and March 15th, 1917).

31st January

  • German Government announce forthcoming "unrestricted" submarine warfare and threaten to sink hospital ships (see February 1st).

FEBRUARY 1917

1st February

  • German "unrestricted submarine warfare" begins (see January 31st).
  • Norwegian Government forbid all foreign submarines to use Norwegian territorial waters (see October 13th, 1916).

3rd February

  • United States of America sever diplomatic relations with Germany (see April 6th).
  • Affairs in the Siwa Oasis (West Egypt) begin (see 5th).

4th February

  • Sa'id Halim, Turkish Grand Vizier, resigns [Appointed in 1913.]: succeeded by Talaat Pasha (see October 13th, 1918).

5th February

  • Affairs in the Siwa Oasis end (see 3rd and 8th).

8th February

  • British operations against the Senussi come to an and (see 5th, and November 23rd, 1915).

13th February

  • Scandinavian Governments' joint protest against German submarine warfare published.

14th February

  • British Government inform Japanese Government that they will support Japanese claims to German possessions north of the Equator if it is understood that Japan will support similar British claims south of the Equator (see December 16th, 1914).
  • British Government give pledge in House of Commons that the restitution of Alsace-Lorraine is an object of the war (see November 15th).

17th February

  • Australian War Government formed.

20th February

  • Inter-Allied Conference ["Commission de Ravitaillement"] at Petrograd dissolves (see January 17th).

23rd February

  • Kut reoccupied by British forces (see 24th, and January 9th).

24th February

  • Battle of Kut, 1917, ends. Turkish Army retreats from Kut (see 23rd and January 9th).

25th February

  • German forces withdraw from front line positions on the Ancre as part of the withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line. (see November 18th, 1916 and March 14th, 1917).
  • The pursuit to Baghdad begins (see 24th and March 11th).
  • German destroyer raid on Margate and Broadstairs (see March 18th).
  • British S.S. "Laconia" sunk by submarine (see 27th).

26th February

  • President Wilson in address to Congress asks for power to arm merchant ships (see February 21st, 1916 and March 12th, 1917).
  • Anglo-French Conference assembles at Calais to discuss operations, the co-operation of the armies and the co-ordination of operations by the French Commander-in-Chief (continued on 27th) (see March 12th).

27th February

  • President Wilson states that he considers sinking of "Laconia" the "overt act" for which he was waiting (see 25th and april 6th).

28th February

  • German proposals to Mexico for alliance against the United States published in the American Press (see January 19th).

MARCH 1917

1st March

  • British hospital ship "Glenart Castle" damaged by mine between Havre and Southampton (see February 26th, 1918).

2nd March

  • Hamadan (Western Persia) recaptured by Russian forces (see August 10th, 1916, and March 16th, 1918).

7th March

  • Passage of the Diyala (near Baghdad) (7th/10th).

8th March

  • Count Zeppelin dies.

11th March

  • Baghdad occupied by British forces (see February 25th).
  • Kirmanshah (Western Persia) again taken by Russian forces (see July 1st, 1916 and February 25th, 1918).
  • Allied Offensive in Macedonia to free Monastir begins (see 23rd).

12th March

  • Russian Revolution begins (see 13th, 14th and 15th).
  • United States Government announce arming of all merchant vessels in the war zone (see February 26th).
  • Anglo-French Conference assembles in London to discuss relations of British and French commanders in the Western Theatre and employment of prisoners of war in the fighting zone (see February 26th, 1917 and March 26th, 1918).

13th March

  • Prince Golitsin, Russian Premier, removed from office by Revolutionary party (see 12th, 15th, and January 8th).
  • General Byelyaev, Russian Minister for War, removed from office by Revolutionary party (see 12th, 15th, and January 17th).

14th March

  • German forces withdraw from the Somme sector to the Hindenburg Line (see February 25th and April 5th).
  • Action of Mushaidiya (Mesopotamia).
  • New Provisional Government proclaimed in Russia (see 12th, 22nd and November 8th).
  • China severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see August 14th).

15th March

  • Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia, abdicates (see 12th, and July 16th, 1918).
  • Prince Lvov appointed Russian Premier (see 13th, 14th and July 19th).
  • M. Milyukov appointed Russian Foreign Minister (see 14th, January 27th, and May 16th).
  • General Guchkov appointed Russian Minister for War (see 13th, 14th, and May 16th).

16th March

  • Action between German raider "Leopard" and H.M.S. "Achilles" and Armed Boarding Steamer "Dundee": "Leopard" sunk.
  • Mutiny breaks out in Russian Baltic Fleet (see 12th, and June 21st).

17th March

  • Roye occupied by French forces (see August 30th, 1914 and March 26th, 1918).
  • Bapaume occupied by British forces (see September 26th, 1914 and March 24th, 1918).
  • German airship "L.-39" destroyed at Compiègne when returning from raid on England.
  • Karind (West Persia) occupied by Russian forces.
  • M. Briand, French Premier and Minister for Foreign affairs, resigns (see 20th and October 30th, 1915).
  • General Roques, French Minister for War, resigns (see 20th and March 16th, 1916).

18th March

  • German destroyer raid on Ramsgate and Broadstairs (see April 26th).
  • Péronne and Noyon occupied by Allied forces (see September 21st, 24th and 25th, 1914; and March 24th and 25th, 1918).

19th March

  • French battleship "Danton" sunk by submarine in Mediterranean.

20th March

  • M. Ribot succeeds M. Briand as French Premier and Minister for Foreign Affairs (see 17th, December 12th, 1916, and September 9th, 1917).
  • M. Painlevé appointed French Minister for War (see 17th, September 12th and November 14th).
  • First meeting of British Imperial War Conference (see December 19th, 1916).

21st March

  • British hospital ship "Asturias" torpedoed off Start Point.

22nd March

  • Provisional Government in Russia recognised by Great Britain, France, Italy, United States of America, Rumania, and Switzerland (see 14th).
  • German raider "Moewe" returns to Kiel from her second cruise (see November 26th, 1916).

23rd March

  • Allied Offensive in Macedonia ends (see 11th).

24th March

  • British offensive into Palestine begins (see 26th).

25th March

  • Qasr-i-Shirin (Western Persia) again taken by Russian forces (see June 20th, 1916 and July 8th, 1917).

26th March

  • First Battle of Gaza begins (see 27th).

27th March

  • First Battle of Gaza ends (see 26th, and April 17th).

30th March

  • Russian Provisional Government Issue Proclamation acknowledging the Independence of Poland (see 14th, November 5th, 1916 and April 5th, 1917).
  • British hospital ship "Gloucester Castle" torpedoed between Havre and Southampton, but towed in.

31st March

  • The Emperor of Austria makes secret proposal, conveyed in a letter to prince Sixte of Bourbon, to the French President (M. Poincaré) to open conversations with a view to peace (see April 11th, 1918).

APRIL 1917

3rd April

  • H.M.S. "Jason" (torpedo gunboat) sunk by mine off west coast of Scotland.

4th April

  • Khanaqin (North-East of Baghdad) again occupied by Russian forces.

5th April

  • German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line completed (see March 14th).
  • British Government inform Russian Provisional Government of their adherence to the principle of an independent and united Poland (see March 30th and September 13th, 1916, and January 10th, 1917).

6th April

  • United States of America declare war on Germany (see February 3rd).

7th April

  • Cuba and Panama declare war on Germany.

8th April

  • Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic relations with United States of America, (see December 7th).

9th April

  • Battles of Arras 1917 as part of the Allied Artois and Champagne Offensive begin with Battle of Vimy Ridge (see 14th) and First Battle of the Scarpe 1917 (see 23rd and May 4th).

Battles of the Western Front: Allied Spring Offensive in Artois & Champagne

  • Admiral Sims, United States Navy, arrives in England (see June 18th).
  • Russian Provisional Government (see March 14th) issue Proclamation to Allied Governments declaring in favour of self-determination of peoples and a durable peace.

10th April

  • British hospital ship."Salta" mined off Havre.
  • Bulgaria severs diplomatic relations with the United States of America.

11th April

  • Brazil severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see October 26th).

13th April

  • Bolivia severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

14th April

  • Battle of Vimy Ridge and First Battle of the Scarpe end (see 9th).

16th April

  • French 1917 Offensive begins with the Second Battle of the Aisne or Nivelle Offensive (see 20th).

Battles of the Western Front: Allied Spring Offensive in Artois & Champagne

17th April

  • "Battle of the Hills" ("La Bataille des Monts") also called the Third Battle of Champagne (Champagne) begins (see 20th).

Battles of the Western Front: Allied Spring Offensive in Artois & Champagne

  • Second Battle of Gaza begins (see 19th and March 27th).
  • Japanese flotillas join Allied forces in the Mediterranean (see February 8th, 1916 and November 15th, 1917).
  • British ambulance transports "Lanfranc" and "Donegal" torpedoed and sunk in English Channel.

19th April

  • Second Battle of Gaza ends (see 17th and October 27th).

20th April

  • French Offensive stopped (see 16th): Second Battle of the Aisne and "Battle of the The Hills" end (see 16th and 17th).
  • Second German destroyer raid on Straits of Dover (night 20th /21st). Action by the "Swift" and "Broke" (see October 26th, 1916 and February 15th, 1918).
  • Turkey severs diplomatic relations with the United States of America.

22nd April

  • Action of Istabulat (Mesopotamia) (21st/22nd).

23rd April

  • Second Battle of the Scarpe 1917 (Arras) (23rd/24th) (see 9th and May 3rd).

Battles of the Western Front: Allied Spring Offensive in Artois & Champagne

24th April

  • Samarra (Mesopotamia) taken by British forces (23rd/24th).
  • First Battle of Doiran begin (first phase 24th/25th) (see, May 9th).

25th April

  • Dr. A. Augusto da Costa succeeds Dr. A. J. d'Almeida as Portuguese Premier (see March 15th, 1916 and December 10th, 1917).

26th April

  • Second German destroyer raid on Ramsgate (night 26th/27th) (see March 18th).

27th April

  • Guatemala severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see April 23rd, 1918).

28th April

  • United States Congress pass Bill for raising 500,000 men (see 6th and May 18th).
  • Battle of Arleux (Arras) (28th/29th).

Battles of the Western Front: Allied Spring Offensive in Artois & Champagne

29th April

  • General Pétain appointed Chief of French General Staff (see December 3rd, 1915 and May 15th, 1917).

30th April

  • Mush (Armenia) occupied by Turkish forces (see August 24th, 1916).

MAY 1917

2nd May

  • First United States destroyer flotilla arrives at Queenstown (see June 18th).
  • Third Battle of the Scarpe 1917 (Arras), begins (see 4th, and April 23rd).
  • Battle of Bullecourt begins (see 17th).

Battles of the Western Front: Allied Spring Offensive in Artois & Champagne

  • Professor Lambros, Greek Premier, resigns and is succeeded by M. Zaimis (see October 10th, 1916 and June 24th, 1917).

4th May

  • Craonne (Aisne) retaken by French forces (see September 1st, 1914, April 16th, 1917 and May 27th, 1918).
  • End of Third Battle of the Scarpe, 1917 (see 3rd) brings Battles of Arras, 1917, to an end (see April 9th).

5th May

  • Battle of the Vardar (Macedonia) begins (see 22nd).
  • Liberia severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see August 4th).

7th May

  • First night air raid on London. Single aeroplane by moonlight (see November 28th, 1916 and September 4th, 1917 and May 19th, 1918).

9th May

  • First Battle of Doiran ends (second phase 8th/9th) (see April 24th, 1917 and September 18th, 1918).

10th May

  • Major-General J. Pershing appointed to command United States Expeditionary Force (see June 8th).

12th May

  • Tenth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see June 8th).

14th May

  • German airship "L.-22" destroyed in North Sea by British warships.

15th May

  • Action between Austrian and British naval light forces in the Straits of Otranto: 14 British drifters sunk.
  • General Pétain succeeds General Nivelle as Commander-in-Chief of French Northern and North-Eastern Groups of Armies (see April 29th, 1917 and November 19th, 1918).
  • General Foch succeeds General Pétain as Chief of the French General Staff of French Ministry of War (see October 8th, 1914 and November 27th, 1917).

16th May

  • M. Kerenski succeeds General Guchkov as Russian Minister for War (see March 15th and November 8th).
  • M. Tereshchenko succeeds M. Milyukov as Russian Foreign minister (see March 15th and November 8th).

17th May

  • Battle of Bullecourt ends (see 3rd).
  • Honduras severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see July 19th, 1918).
  • The British Admiralty, following on a Cabinet decision, appoint a Committee, in conjunction with the Ministry of Shipping, to draw up a plan to convoy merchant ships (see June 14th and July 2nd).

18th May

  • Compulsory Service Act becomes law in the United States of America (see April 28th).
  • Nicaragua severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see May 8th, 1918).

19th May

  • Russian Provisional Government issue declaration repudiating a separate peace.
  • United States Government announce decision to send a Division of the United States Army to France at once (see June 25th).

20th May

  • Serbian Govermnent transferred from Corfu to Salonika (see February 9th, 1916 and December 9th, 1918).

22nd May

  • Battle of the Yardar ends (see 5th).

23rd May

  • Count Tisza, Hungarian Premier, resigns [Appointed June 10th 1913.] (see June 15th, 1917, aud October 31st, 1918).

25th May

  • First great aeroplane raid on England (Kent and Folkestone) to cause heavy casualties. Total 290, over half civilians (see December 21st, 1914 and July 20th and August 5th, 1918).

26th May

  • British hospital ship "Dover Castle" sunk by submarine in the Mediterranean.

28th May

  • Anglo-French Conference assembles in London to discuss the deposition of King Constantine of Greece and the occupation of Athens and Thessaly (continued on 29th) (see June 11th).

29th May

  • Vossuq ed Douleh, Persian Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, resigns (see August 29th, 1916, June 6th, 1917, and August 7th, 1918).

30th May

  • General van Deventer succeeds General Hoskins in command of British forces in East Africa (see January 20th).

JUNE 1917

3rd June

  • Italy proclaims Protectorate over an independent Albania.

4th June

  • General Brusilov succeeds General Alexeiev as Russian Commander-in-Chief (see September 5th, 1915 and August 1st, 1917).

5th June

  • German daylight aeroplane raid on Sheerness and the Naval establishments on the Medway.

6th June

  • Ala es Sultaneh again appointed Persian Prime Minister and Foreign Minister (see May 29th and November 24th, 1917 and January 19th, 1918).

7th June

  • Battle of Messines 1917 begins as an Allied offensive in Flanders (see 14th and November 1st, 1914). The battle was launched in the early hours of the morning with the blowing of 19 mines by the British Army, the largest of which is now known as Spanbroekmolen Mine Crater (or Lone Tree Crater).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917

8th June

  • Tenth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see May 12th).
  • Janina (Greece) occupied by Italian forces.
  • Major-General Pershing arrives in England (see 13th and May 10th).

9th June

  • Russian Provisional Government refuse a German proposal for an unlimited armistice.

11th June

  • Entente Governments present demand to Greek Government for abdication of King Constantine (see 12th and May 28th).
  • Santo Domingo severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

12th June

  • King Constantine of Greece abdicates in favour of his second son, Prince Alexander (see 11th).
  • Corinth and Larissa occupied by Entente forces.

13th June

  • Great German daylight aeroplane raid on London; 157 killed and 432 injured (see November 28th, 1916 and July 7th, 1917).
  • Major-General Pershing arrives in France (see 8th and May 10th).

14th June

  • Battle of Messines, 1917, ends (see 7th and April 10th, 1918).
  • German airship "L.-43" destroyed in the North Sea.
  • The British Admiralty Formally approve, scheme for convoying merchant ships (see May 17th aud July 2nd).

15th June

  • Count Esterhazy appointed Hungarian Premier (see May 23rd and August 9th).

16th June

  • Haiti severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see July 12th, 1918).

17th June

  • Portuguese troops in action on Western Front for the first time (see August 8th, 1916 and January 3rd, 1917).
  • German airship "L.-48" destroyed by aeroplane at Theberton in Suffolk.

18th June

  • Admiral Sims, United States Navy, hoists his flag at Queenstown as acting Commander-in-Chief Irish Command (see April 9th and May 2nd).
  • Count Clam-Martinitz, Austrian Premier, resigns (see 23rd and December 21st, 1916).

19th June

  • General Currie appointed to command Canadian troops in France.

21st June

  • Mutiny breaks out in the Russian Black Sea Fleet at Sevastopol (see March 16th, 1917 and May 1st, 1918).

23rd June

  • Dr. Ernst Ritter von Seidler appointed Austrian Premier (see 18th and June 21st, 1918).

24th

  • M. Zaimis, Greek Premier, resigns (see May 3rd and June 26th).

25th June

  • First contingent of United States troops arrives in France (see May 19th).

26th June

  • M. Venizelos appointed Greek Premier (see 24th and 27th and October 5th, 1915).

27th June

  • M. Venizelos assumes power at Athens. Diplomatic relations severed with Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. Declaration of War by Provisional Government against Germany and Bulgaria of November 23rd, 1916, becomes effective for the whole of Greece. "State of War" also begins between Greece and Austria-Hungary and between Greece and Turkey (see 26th).
  • French cruiser "Kléber" sunk by submarine off Brest.

28th June

  • General Allenby succeeds General Sir A. Murray as General Officer Commanding in Egypt (see March 19th, 1916).

29th June

  • Russian Summer Offensive begins (see July 18th).

JULY 1917

1st July

  • Manchu Emperor (Hsuan-Fung) restored in China (see June 6th, 1916 and July 6th and 7th, 1917).

2nd July

  • Agreement signed at The Hague for the exchange of combatant and civilian British and German prisoners of war (see May 13th, 1916).
  • First regular convoy of merchant ships sails from Hampton Roads (Va.) [Experimental convoys had been tried in May. Convoys outward from Great Britain did not start till August.] (see May 17th and June 14th).

4th July

  • Ponta Delgada (Azores) shelled by a German submarine.
  • Concerted attack by German submarines on United States transports defeated.

6th July

  • Aqaba (Arabia) occupied by Arab forces.
  • Conscription Bill carried in Canadian House of Commons (see October 12th).
  • Li-Yuan-Hung, President of China, resigns and is succeeded by Feng-Kuo-Chang (see June 6th, 1916, July 7th, 1917 and October 11th, 1918).

7th July

  • Severe aeroplane raid on England (Margate and London; casualties 250, mostly civilian: last on London by daylight) (see November 28th, and August 22nd, 1916 and May 19th and July 20th, 1918).
  • Manchu Emperor abdicates (see 1st and 6th).

8th July

  • Russian forces begin withdrawal from Western Persia; Qasr-i-Shirin evacuated (see May 7th, 1916, March 25th, 1917 and January 8th, 1918).

9th July

  • H.M.S. "Vanguard" sunk by internal explosion in harbour.

11th July

  • British attack on Ramadi (Mesopotamia) (11th/14th).

14th July

  • Herr von Bethmann-Holweg, German Imperial Chancellor, resigns (appointed July 14th, 1909): succeeded by Dr. Michaelis (see October 30th).

15th July

  • Dr. Artur von Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister, resigns (see November 21st, 1916, and August 5th, 1917).

17th July

  • Proclamation issued changing name of British Royal House to Windsor.

18th July

  • German Counter-Offensive on the Eastern Front: Battle of East Galicia begins (see 28th and June 29th).

19th July

  • Action of Narungombe (East Africa).
  • Sir Edward Carson, First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain, tenders his resignation (see December 12th, 1916 and September 6th, 1917).
  • The Reichstag passes Resolution as to German War Aims (see January 24th, 1918).
  • M. Kerenski succeeds Prince Lvov as Premier of Russia temporarily (see March 15th and August 6th).

22nd July

  • Battle of Marasesti (Rumania) begins (see August 1st).
  • Siam declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.

24th July

  • Stanislau (see August 10th, 1916) and Tarnopol in Galicia retaken by Austro-German forces (see 18th).

25th July

  • Full Inter-Allied Conference assembles in Paris to discuss the Balkan situation, with military, naval and political committees to discuss plans in view of a probable collapse of Russia (Conference continued on 26th).

27th July

  • Agreement concluded between French and Italian Governments defining respective zones of influence in Asia Minor (see August 18th).

28th July

  • Battle of East Galicia ends (see 18th).
  • Tank Corps formed in British Army (see September 15th, 1916).

30th July

  • Zaleszczyki (Galicia) recaptured by austro-German forces (see June 12th, 1916).

31st July

  • Battles of Ypres 1917 begin with Battle of Pilckem Ridge (see August 2nd and November 10th, 1917 and May 25th, 1915).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917

AUGUST 1917

1st August

  • End of first phase of Battle of Marasesti (see July 22nd).
  • General Kornilov succeeds General Brusilov as Russian Commander-in-Chief (see June 4th and September 8th).
  • The Pope sends Note to belligerent Governments appealing for peace (see July 30th, 1915).

2nd August

  • Battle of Pilckem Ridge (Ypres) ends (see July 31st)
  • German commerce raider "Seeadler" wrecked on Mopelia Island (Pacific) (see November 22nd, 1916).

3rd August

  • Czernowitz (Bukovina) retaken by Austro-German forces (see June 17th, 1916).
  • Mutiny breaks out in German Fleet at Wilhelmshaven (see November 3rd, 1918).

4th August

  • Liberia declares war on Germany (see May 5th, 1917 and April 10th, 1918).
  • Baron de Broqueville resigns as Belgian Minister for bear (appointed February 28th, 1914) and succeeds Baron Beyens as Minister for Foreign Affairs (see January 18th, 1916, and January 1st, 1918). Lieut.-General A. de Ceuninck appointed Minister for War (see November 21st, 1918).

5th August

  • Herr Richard von Kuhlmann appointed German Foreign Minister (see July 15th, 1917 and July 9th, 1918).

6th August

  • Second phase of Battle of Marasesti begins (see 1st, and September 3rd).
  • M. Kerenski definitely appointed Prime Minister of Russia (see July 19th, September 10th and November 8th).

9th August

  • Count Esterhazy, Hungarian Premier, resigns (see 21st and June 15th).

10th August

  • British Labour Party decide to send delegates to a "consultative" Conference at Stockholm (see 13th).

13th August

  • British Government refuse passports for Stockholm Conference (see 10th).

14th August

  • China declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary (see march 14th).

15th August

  • Battle of Hill 70 (Lens) begins (see 25th).

16th August

  • Battle of Langemarck 1917 (Ypres), begins (see 18th).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917

17th August

  • Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo begins (see September 12th).
  • M. Cochin succeeded by M. Métin as French Under-Secretary for Blockade (see March 20th, 1916 and November 16th, 1917).

18th August

  • Battle of Langemarck, 1917 (Ypres), ends (see 16th).
  • British, French, and Italian Governments conclude provisional arrangement with regard to future policy in Asia Minor (see May 16th, 1916 and July 27th, 1917).

20th August

  • "Second Offensive Battle" of Verdun begins [French name and dates.] (see December 15th, 1917 and December 18th, 1916).

21st August

  • Dr. Wekerle appointed Hungarian Premier (see 9th and April 17th, 1918).
  • German airship "L.-23" destroyed in North Sea.
  • Ministry of Reconstruction formed in Great Britain.

22nd August

  • Last German aeroplane raid on England by daylight (see July 7th and September 2nd).

25th August

  • Battle of Bill 70 (Lens) ends (see 15th).

SEPTEMBER 1917

1st September

  • Battle of Riga begins (see 3rd and 5th).

2nd September

  • First German aeroplane raid on England by moonlight by more than one aeroplane (see 4th and May 7th).

3rd September

  • Battle of Marasesti (Rumania) ends (see August 6th).
  • Riga captured by German forces (see 1st and 5th and October 16th).
  • Severe aeroplane raid on Kent by moonlight (Casualties about 230, mostly military).

4th September

  • German aeroplanes for the first time raid London by night in force (see 2nd).
  • German submarine bombards Scarborough (Yorkshire).
  • Anglo-French Conference assembles in London to discuss the question of military assistance to ltaly. (see 25th).

5th September

  • Battle of Riga ends (see 1st and 3rd).

6th September

  • Sir Eric Geddes appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain (see July 19th).

8th September

  • General Kornilov heads revolt against Russian Provisional Government and marches on Petrograd (see 10th and 13th and August 1st).

9th September

  • M. Ribot, French Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns (see 12th and March 20th).

10th September

  • M. Kerenski assumes Dictatorship of Russia (see August 6th and November 8th) and issues proclamation declaring General Kornilov a traitor (see 8th and 13th).

11th September

  • First party of repatriated british prisoners reaches England from Switzerland (see May 13th, 1916).

12th September

  • Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo ends (see August 17th).
  • M. Painlevé succeeds M. Ribot as French Premier (see 9th and November 14th).
  • M. Ribot reappointed French Foreign Minister (see 9th, and October 23rd ).
  • Central Powers proclaim grant of temporary Constitution to Poland, (see April 5th and October 15th, 1917 and January 10th, 1918).

13th September

  • General Kornilov's revolt collapses (see 8th, 10th and 14th).

14th September

  • General Kornilov surrenders to the Provisional Government (see 13th).

15th September

  • Russia proclaimed a Republic by the Provisional GoVernment (see 10th).

20th September

  • Battle of the Menin Road Ridge (Ypres) begins (see 25th).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917
  • Council of Trans-Caucasian peoples, i.e., Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Daghestan, proclaim Trans-Caucasia a federal Republic (see April 22nd, 1918).

21st September

  • Count Bernstorff's correspondence re German intrigues published.
  • Costa Rica severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see May 23rd, 1918).

22nd September

  • Jakobstadt (Baltic) stormed by German forces (21st/22nd).

25th September

  • Battle of the Menin Road Ridge (Ypres) ends (see. 20th).
  • Anglo-French Conference assembles in Boulogne to discuss an Italian offensive and the extension of the British front in France (see 4th).

26th September

  • Battle of Polygon Wood (Ypres) begins (see October 3rd).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917

28th September

  • Action of Ramadi (Mesopotamia) (28th/29th).

OCTOBER 1917

2nd October

  • H.M.S. "Drake" sunk by submarine in the North Channel.

3rd October

  • Battle of Polygon Wood (Ypres) ends (see September 26th).

4th October

  • Battle of Broodseinde (Ypres). The attack by II ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) successfully achieved its objective on the first day of the battle and reached the high ground just below the summit of the Broodseinde Ridge.
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917

5th October

  • Peru severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

6th October

  • Major-General Pershing, Commanding United States Army in France, promoted to General (see June 13th).

7th October

  • Uruguay severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

9th October

  • Battle of Poelcapelle (Ypres).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917
  • Hussein Kamel, Sultan of Egypt, dies. Succeeded by Prince Ahmed Fuad, his youngest brother. (See December 19th, 1914).

10th October

  • British hospital ship "Goorkha" damaged by mine off Malta.

11th October

  • German operations against the Baltic Islands begin (see 12th).

12th October

  • First Battle of Passchendaele (Ypres) (see 26th).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917
  • Ösel Island (Baltic) captured by German forces [Operations not completed until the 16th.] (see 11th and 18th).
  • Canadian War Cabinet formed.
  • Compulsory Service Act comes into operation in Canada (see July 6th).

15th October

  • Polish Regency Council appointed (see September 12th).
  • Mata Hari (an exotic dancer) shot at dawn (06:00) at the age of 41 by a French firing squad of Zouaves at Caserne de Vincennes on the outskirts of Paris, having been tried as a spy.

16th October

  • Action of Nyangao (German East Africa) begins (see 19th).
  • Naval action in Gulf of Riga. Russian battleship "Slava" sunk (see September 3rd).

17th October

  • Murman cruisers raid convoy in North Sea and sink British destroyers "Strongbow" and "Mary Rose'' (see December 12th).

18th October

  • Moon Island and Dagö Island (Baltic) captured by German forces (see 11th and 12th).

19th October

  • Action of Nyangao (German East Africa) ends (see 16th).
  • Squadron of 11 German airships attack England. ["L.-44" shot down at St. Clement; "L.-46" shot down at Laragne; "L.49" shot down at Bourbonne-les-Bains on October 20th; "L.-50" brought down in the Mediterranean on October 21st.] (Last airship raid on London.) (See May 31st, 1915 and August 5th, 1918).

20th October

  • German conquest of the Baltic Islands completed (see 11th, 12th and 18th).

21st October

  • Turkish attack on Arab stronghold at Petra repulsed.

23rd October

  • Battle of La Malmaison begins (see November 1st).
  • M. Barthou succeeds M. Ribot as French Foreign Minister (see September 12th and November 14th).

24th October

  • Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo begins: Austro-German offensive (see December 26th).

25th October

  • Signor Boselli, Italian Premier, resigns (see 29th and June 15th, 1916).

26th October

  • Brazil declares war on Germany (see April 11th).
  • Second Battle of Passchendaele (Ypres) begins (see 12th and November 6th and 10th).
Battles of the Western Front: British Flanders Offensive 1917

27th October

  • Third Battle of Gaza begins (see April 19th and November 7th).

28th October

  • Gorizia retaken by Austro German forces (see 24th).
  • Udine (Venetia) captured by Austro-German forces (see 24th).

29th October

  • Signor Orlando appointed Italian Premier (see 25th).

30th October

  • Count Hertling succeeds Dr. Michaelis as German lmperial Chancellor (see July 14th, 1917 and September 30th, 1918).

31st October

  • The Battle of Beersheba. This battle was part of the British offensive known as the Third Battle of Gaza aimed at breaking the Turkish defensive line that stretched from Gaza to Beersheba. The battle is best known for the charge of the 4th Light Horse Brigade. (see 27th and November 7th)

NOVEMBER 1917

1st November

  • Battle of La Malmaison ends (see October 23rd).
  • Ministry of National Service formed in Great Britain (see December 19th, 1916).

2nd November

  • Raid by British naval light forces on the Kattegat (see April 15th, 1918).

3rd November

  • Arrival of French troops in ltaly announced (see 4th).
  • Agreement concluded between British, french and Italian Governments for provision of tonnage for the Allied food programme (see November 10th, 1915, January 6th and December 3rd, 1917).

4th November

  • Arrival of British troops in Italy announced (see 3rd and June 30th, 1918).

5th November

  • Action of Tikrit (Mesopotamia) (see 6th).

6th November

  • Passchendaele captured by British (Canadian) forces (see October 26th, 1917 and April 16th, 1918).
  • Tikrit (Mesopotamia) Occupied by British forces (see 5th).

7th November

  • Third Battle of Gaza ends (see October 27th).
  • Allied Conference at Rapallo. Inception of Supreme War Council (see 27th).
  • General Cadorna relieved of the command of the Italian Armies (see May 23rd, 1915 and November 27th, 1917). Succeeded by General Diaz.

8th November

  • Bolshevik coup d'état in Petrograd. M. Lenin and M. Trotski assume power. Former succeeds M. Kerenski as Premier and latter succeeds M. Tereshchenko as Foreign Minister (see 13th, May 16th and August 6th).

10th November

  • Second Battle of Passchendaele ends (see October 26th) and Battles of Ypres, 1917, end (see July 31st, 1917 and September 28th, 1918).

11th November

  • Austro-German forces reach the Piave. (see October 24th).

13th November

  • Kerenski's forces defeated by Bolsheviki near Petrograd (see 8th and 15th).
  • Action of El Mughar (Palestine).

14th November

  • M. Painlevé, French Premier and War Minister, resigns (see 16th, and September 12th).
  • M. Barthou, French Foreign Minister, resigns (see 16th and October 23rd).

15th November

  • British Government give further pledge in house of Commons that restitution of Alsace-Lorraine is a War Aim (see February 15th).
  • Japanese Government unable to comply with request of British Government that two Japanese battle cruisers should join the Grand Fleet in the North Sea (see February 8th, 1916, and April 17th, 1917).
  • M. Kerenski flees from Petrograd (see 13th).

16th November

  • Jaffa (Palestine) taken by British forces.
  • M. Clémenceau appointed French Premier and War Minister (see 14th).
  • M. Stephen Pichon appointed French Foreign Minister (see 14th).
  • M. Jonnart succeeds M. Métin as French Minister for Blockade [First Minister: formerly Blockade was under an Under-Secretary.] (see 23rd and August 17th).

17th November

  • Battle of Nebi Samwil (Palestine) begins (see 24th).
  • Light cruiser action off Heligoland.

18th November

  • General Sir S. Maude, Commander-in-Chief in Mesopotamia, dies at Baghdad (see August 28th, 1916): succeeded by Lieut.-General Sir W. R. Marshall.

20th November

  • Battle of Cambrai 1917 begins (see 30th and December 3rd).
Battles of the Western Front: British Cambrai Offensive 1917
  • Ukrainian People's Republic proclaimed (see January 3rd, November 15th and December 26th, 1918).

21st November

  • Armistice pourparlers begun by Russian Bolshevik Government with Central Powers (see 8th, 27th and 30th).
  • German airship "L.-59" leaves Yambol (Bulgaria) for East Africa [Evidence for this event rests on German statements only.] (see 23rd).

23rd November

  • M. Lebrun succeeds M. Jonnart as French Minister for Blockade (see 16th).
  • German airship "L.-.59" reaches East Africa, but turns back without alighting [Evidence for this event rests on German statements only.] (see 21st and 25th).

24th November

  • Battle of Nebi Samwil (Palestine) ends (see 17th.).
  • Ain ed Douleh succeeds Ala es Sultaneh as Persian Prime Minister (see June 6th, 1917 and January 19th, 1918).

25th November

  • German airship "L.-59" returns to Yambol from flight to East Africa [Evidence for this event rests on German statements only.] (see 23rd).
  • German force under Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck effects passage of the Rovuma and defeats Portuguese force at Ngomano. German operations in Portuguese East Africa, begin (see December 1st, 1917 and September 29th, 1918).

27th November

  • Members of Supreme Council appointed - General Sir H. H. Wilson, General F. Foch, General Cadorna and General Bliss (see 7th).
  • First meeting of Russian and German delegates behind German lines to arrange for armistice (see 21st and 30th).

28th November

  • German force under Captain Tafel surrenders to the British in the Mwiti Valley (German East Africa).
  • Estonia declared independent by the local Diet (see January 13th, 1918).

29th November

  • First meeting of Great Inter-Allied Conference opens in Paris.
  • Air Force (Constitution) Act, 1917, comes into operation in Great Britain (see December 21st, 1917 and January 3rd, 1918).

30th November

  • The German counter-attacks at Cambrai begin (see 20th and December 3rd).
  • Allied Naval Conference formed in London (see January 24th).
  • Austro-Hungarian Government accept Bolshevik proposals to negotiate for an armistice and peace (see 21st and December 3rd).

DECEMBER 1917

1st December

  • Permanent Allied Supreme War Council inaugurated (see November 7th 1917 and February 3rd, 1918).
  • The last German forces driven out of German East Africa into Portuguese territory (approximate date) (see November 25th).

2nd December

  • Suspension of hostilities between the Russian and German Armies begins (see 8th). [The actual suspension of hostilities took place on dates fixed by the local Arms Commanders (see 8th) in anticipation of truce arranged between the official negotiators (see 6th).]

3rd December

  • Battle of Cambrai, 1917, ends (see November 20th, 1917 and October 8th, 1918).
  • First session of armistice [Also known as "Truce Delegates" and "Peace Delegates."] delegates at Brest-Litovsk-Bolshevik Russia, and Bulgaria, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey (see 6th, and November 30th).
  • Allied Conference in Paris resolve to establish an Allied Maritime Transport Council (see January 6th and November 3rd, 1917 and February 15th, 1918).

6th December

  • Finland declares independence (see January 4th, 1918).
  • Hostilities between Rumania and Central Powers suspended (see 9th and 10th, and March 5th, May 7th, and November 10th, 1918).
  • Truce arranged between Russia, and Bulgaria, Central Powers and Turkey from 7th to 17th. Negotiations suspended (see 3rd and 13th).
  • United States Battleship Division, under Rear-Admiral Rodman, joins Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow.

7th December

  • United States of America declare war on Austria-Hungary (see April 8th).
  • Ecuador severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • Truce between Russia and Central Powers comes into operation officially (see 2nd and 6th).

8th December

  • All hostilities on the Eastern front suspended (see 2nd).

9th December

  • Jerusalem surrenders to British forces (see 11th).
  • Italian naval raid on Trieste harbour (night 9th/10th). Austrian battleship "Wien" sunk.
  • Armistice ("Truce of Focsani") signed between Rumania and Central Powers (see 6th, and November 10th, 1918).

10th December

  • Hostilities between Rumania and the Central Powers cease (see 6th).
  • Panama declares war on Austria-Hungary.
  • Dr. S. Cardosa da Paes succeeds Dr. A. A. da Costa as Portuguese Prime Minister (see April 25th, 1917, and May 15th, 1918).

11th December

  • Russian Constituent Assembly meet in Petrograd (see 13th).
  • General Allenby makes formal entry into Jerusalem (see 9th).
  • Dr Machado Guimarães, Portuguese President, deposed (see 28th, and August 6th and October 5th, 1915).

12th December

  • Funchal (Madeira) shelled by German submarine (see December 3rd, 1916).
  • German destroyers raid British convoy in the North Sea and sink H.M.S. "Partridge" (see October 17th).

13th December

  • Armistice negotiations on Russian front resumed (see 6th and 15th).
  • Russian Constituent Assembly dispersed by Bolsheviki (see 11th, and November 8th, 1917, and January 19th, 1918).

14th December

  • French cruiser "Chãteau Renault" sunk by submarine.
  • General Sarrail recalled from Salonika (see 22nd, and January 16th, 1916).

15th December

  • Armistice signed at Brest-Litovsk between Russian Bolshevik Government and Bulgaria, Central Powers and Turkey, to begin at noon December 17th, and terminate January 14th, 1918 (see 13th and 22nd).
  • "Second Offensive Battle" of Verdun ends (see August 20th).

16th December

  • Cuba declares war on Austria-Hungary.

17th December

  • British Government give the King of the Hejaz (see December 15th, 1916, and February 4th, 1918) written assurance of the future independence of the Arab people.
  • Armistice between Russia and Central Powers begins (see 15th).

21st December

  • Battle of Jaffa (Palestine) begins (see 22nd).
  • British Government issue Order in Council instituting the Air Council (see November 29th, 1917, and January 3rd, 1918).

22nd December

  • Battle of Jaffa (Palestine) ends (see 21st).
  • Peace negotiations between Russian Bolshevik Government and Bulgaria, Central Powers and Turkey opened at Brest-Litovsk (see 15th, and January 5th, 1918).
  • Secret Convention signed at Brest-Litovsk between Germany and Russian Bolshevik Government concerning Poland.
  • General Guillaumat appointed Allied Commander-in-Chief at Salonika (see 14th, and June 6th, 1918).
  • Lieut.-General Sir R. C. Maxwell, Quartermaster-General, B.E.F., France, resigns (see 23rd, and January 27th, 1915).

23rd December

  • Independent Moldavian Republic (Bessarabia) proclaimed at Kishinev (see April 9th, 1918).
  • Lieut.-General Sir T. E. Clarke, appointed Quartermaster-General, B.E.F., France (see 22nd).

26th December

  • Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see October 24th).
  • British defence of Jerusalem begins (see 30th).
  • Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, First Sea Lord, Great Britain, resigns (see 27th, and December 4th, 1916).

27th December

  • Admiral Sir Rosslyn Wemyss appointed First Sea Lord, Great Britain (see 26th).

28th December

  • French Foreign Minister in speech outlines French War Aims (see January 5th, 1918).
  • Dr. da Silva Paes appointed Acting President of Portugal (see December 11th, 1917, and May 9th, 1918).

30th December

  • British defence of Jerusalem ends (see 26th).