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1915 - Timeline

1916 - Timeline

1917 - Timeline

1918 - Timeline

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History of the Great War

JANUARY 1918

1st January
  • Arab forces begin Actions for Et Tafile (see 28th).
  • M. Hyams succeeds Baron de Broqueville as Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs (see August 4th, 1917).

2nd January

  • Air Ministry formed in Great Britain.

3rd January

  • The Air Council takes over functions of Air Board (see May 17th, 1916 and November 29th and December 21st, 1917).
  • Ukraine delegation reaches Brest-Litovsk (see November 21st, 1917 and February 1st, 1918).

4th January

  • British hospital ship "Rewa" sunk by submarine in Bristol Channel.
  • Russian Bolshevik Government and French and Swedish Governments recognise the independence of Finland (see 10th and December 6th, 1917).
  • British Government in message to the King of the Hejaz declare intentions with regard to future status of Palestine (see December 17th, 1917 and february 4th, 1918).
  • Allied request for handing over of Dutch ships in Allied ports formulated (see March 7th).

5th January

  • British Premier (Mr. Lloyd George) in speech to Trade Union delegates outlines British War Aims (see 24th and December 28th, 1917).
  • Negotiations again suspended on Russian front. Bolshevik demand made for meetings to be held at Stockholm (see 8th and December 6th, 13th and 22nd, 1917).

8th January

  • Qasr-i-Shirin (Western Persia) occupied by British forces (see July 8th, 1917).
  • President Wilson delivers Message to Congress laying down the "Fourteen Points" (see February 11th).
  • Russian Bolshevik Government withdraw demand for transfer to Stockholm and resume negotiations at Brest-Litovsk (see 5th and 22nd).

10th January

  • British Government assure Russian Bolshevik Government of their support in the creation of an independent Poland (see April 5th, 1917 and February 20th, 1918).
  • Danish and Norwegian Governments recognise the independence of Finland (see 4th).

12th January

  • Latvia declares independence (see November 11th).

13th January

  • Estonian Government issue declaration of independence (see November 28th, 1917 and February 25th and November 11th, 1918).

14th January

  • German destroyers bombard Yarmouth (Norfolk).

18th January

  • Russian Constituent Assembly again meet in Petrograd (see 19th and December 13th, 1917).

19th January

  • Russian Constituent Assembly again forcibly dissolved by Bolsheviki (see 18th, and December 13th, 1917).
  • Mustaufi ul Mamalek succeeds Ain ed Douleh as Persian Prime Minister (see November 24th, 1917 and May 3rd, 1918).
  • Mushaver ul Mamalek succeeds Ala es Sultaneh as Persian Foreign Minister (see June 6th, 1917, and August 10th, 1918).

20th January

  • Naval action outside the Dardanelles. German cruiser "Breslau" and British monitor "Raglan" sunk. "Goeben" strikes mine and is beached (see 27th).

22nd January

  • Russian Bolshevik Government accuse Central Powers of falsification of reports of proceedings (see 8th and 23rd).

23rd January

  • Negotiations between Russian Bolshevik Government and Central Powers once more suspended (see 8th, 22nd and 30th).

24th January

  • Count Hertling and Count Czernin (German Imperial Chancellor and Austrian Foreign Minister) make public replies to statements of President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George on War Aims (see 5th and 8th).
  • Lieut.-General The Hon. Sir H.A. Lawrence appointed Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France [Did not take up appointment till the 27th.] (see 27th).

27th January

  • Turkish Dead Sea Flotilla seized by Arab camelry at El Mezraa.
  • General Dunsterville's Mission leaves Baghdad for North-West Persia (see February 17th).
  • The "Goeben" refloated inside the Dardanelles (see 20th).
  • Lieut.-General Sir L.E. Kiggell, Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France, resigns (see 24th, and December 22nd, 1915).

28th January

  • Russian Bolshevik Government sever diplomatic relations with Rumania.
  • Actions for Et Tafile by the Arab forces end (see 1st).

30th January

  • Negotiations between Russian Bolshevik Government and Central Powers again resumed (see 23rd, and February 10th).

FEBRUARY 1918

1st February

  • Central Powers recognise the Ukraine Republic (see 9th, and November 20th, 1917).
  • Extension of the British East Persia Cordon into Khorasan begins. [In relief of Russian forces withdrawn by Bolshevik Government.] (see July 29th, 1915)

3rd February

  • British Government announce enlargement of powers of Supreme War Council at Versailles (see November 7th, 1917, and December 1st, 1917).

4th February

  • General Alexeiev with Don Cossacks moves towards Moscow against the Bolshevik forces (see 13th).
  • British Government make declaration to King of the Hejaz reaffirming their pledges as to freeing the Arab peoples (see October 24th, 1915, December 15th, 1916, December 17th, 1917, and January 4th, 1918).

5th February

  • British S.S. "Tuscania" carrying United States troops, sunk by submarine off Irish coast. (The only loss sustained by U.S. transports when under British naval escort).

6th February

  • German Government send ultimatum to Rumania demanding peace negotiations within four days (see 25th).
  • M. Bratianu, Rumanian Premier, resigns (appointed January 14th, 1914) (see 9th).

9th February

  • Peace signed at Brest-Litovsk between Bulgaria, Central Powers and Turkey and the Ukraine Rada; also supplementary Treaty between Central Powers and The Ukraine; borders of new Ukrainian State defined (see 1st and January 3rd).
  • New Rumanian Cabinet formed, with General Averescu as Premier and Foreign Minister (see 6th, and March 12th).

10th February

  • M. Trotski announces that state of war between Russia and Central Powers, Bulgaria and Turkey is ended, but that Russia will not sign formal peace treaty (see 18th and January 30th).

11th February

  • President Wilson delivers Message to Congress laying down four additional Points (see January 8th and October 6th).

13th February

  • General Alexeiev defeated by the Bolsheviki (see 4th); General Kaledin commits suicide.

15th February

  • Third German destroyer raid in Straits of Dover (night 15th/16th) (see April 20th, 1917)
  • Representatives of Allied Governments arrange establishment of the "Allied Maritime Transport Council" (see December 3rd, 1917 and March 11th, 1918).

16th February

  • Dover shelled by German submarine.

17th February

  • General Dunsterville's Mission reaches Enzeli (North-West Persia) (see May 21st, 1915, January 27th and April 1st, 1918).

18th February

  • Armistice terminates on Russian front. Hostilities resumed by German armies (see 10th and 19th).
  • Dvinsk taken by German forces.
  • General Sir W. Robertson, Chief of the British Imperial General Staff, resigns (see 19th, and December 23rd, 1915).

19th February

  • Russian Bolshevik Government notify willingness to sign Peace Treaty with Germany (see 18th and 28th).
  • General Sir H. H. Wilson appointed Chief of the British lmperial General Staff (see 18th).

20th February

  • British Foreign Minister (Mr. Balfour) informs Polish National Committee that Great Britain does not accept the treaty between The Ukraine and Central Powers (see 9th, January 10th and June 3rd).

21st February

  • Jericho taken by British forces (19th/21st).
  • Ministry of Information formed in Great Britain.

23rd February

  • Inter-Allied Labour and Socialist Conference in London pass resolution as to War Aims.

24th February

  • Trebizond (Asia Minor) retaken by Turkish forces (see April 17th, 1916).
  • Dorpat (Estonia) occupied by German forces (see December 26th).
  • German raider "Wolff" returns to Germany (see December 1st, 1916).

25th February

  • Pernau, Reval, and Pskov taken by German forces (see 18th).
  • Kirmanshah (Western Persia) occupied by British forces (see March 11th, 1917).
  • Peace negotiations begun at Bukharest (see 6th, and March 5th).
  • Military Convention signed at Bobruisk between Germany and Poland.
  • British Government inform M. Tonisson that they are prepared provisionally to recognise the independence of Estonia until the future status of Estonia is settled by the Peace Congress (see January 13th and November 11th).

26th February

  • British hospital ship "Glenart Castle" sunk by submarine in the Bristol Channel (see March 1st, 1917).

28th February

  • Negotiations again resumed between Russian Bolshevik Government arid Central powers; hostilities nominally cease (see 18th, 19th and March 3rd).

MARCH 1918

1st March

  • Treaty of Peace and Amity signed between the Finnish Social Republic of Workmen and the Russian Federal Soviet Republic.

2nd March

  • Kiev (Ukraine) captured by German forces (see December 20th).
  • German force landed in the Aaland islands at request of Finnish Government (see 3rd).

3rd March

  • Meshed (Persia) occupied by troops of British East Persia Cordon. [Approximate date.]
  • Peace signed between Bolshevik Russia and Central Powers, Bulgaria and Turkey at Brest-Litovsk, together with supplementary treaties by the signatories (see 14th and 18th, February 28th and August 27th).
  • German Govermnent notify Swedish Government of occupation of the Aaland Islands (see 2nd).

4th March

  • Narva (Estonia) occupied by German forces (see November 28th).

5th March

  • Preliminary treaty of peace between Rumania and the Central Powers, Bulgaria and Turkey signed at Buftea (see December 9th, 1917, and February 25th and May 7th, 1918).

7th March

  • First German aeroplane raid on England undertaken on moonless night (see July 20th).
  • Peace signed at Berlin between Germany and Finland.
  • Final Allied Note presented to Netherlands Govermnent re surrender of Dutch ships in Allied ports (see 18th, and January 4th).

8th March

  • M. Chichérin appointed Russian Foreign Minister and M. Trotski appointed Minister for War (see November 8th, 1917).

9th March

  • Hit (on the Euphrates) occupied by British forces.
  • Treaty of Peace signed between Rumania and Bolshevik Russia (see 5th).

10th March

  • British hospital ship "Guildford Castle" attacked by German submarine in Bristol Channel, but reaches port.

11th March

  • First meeting of the Allied Maritime Transport Council (see February 15th).

12th March

  • Erzerum retaken by Turkish forces (see February 16th, 1916).
  • General Averescu, Rumanian Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns (see 21st, and February 9th).

13th March

  • Odessa occupied by German forces (see December 11th).

14th March

  • Congress of Soviets meet at Moscow to ratify treaty of peace with Central Powers (see 3rd).

15th March

  • German Government proclaim protectorate over an independent Kurland.

16th March

  • Hamadan (West Persia) evacuated by the Russian regular forces (see March 2nd, 1917).

17th March

  • Nicolaiev (South Russia) captured by German forces (see April 8th).

18th March

  • Entente Governments issue Note refusing to recognise Russo-German peace treaty (see 3rd and 14th).
  • Dutch Government accept with reservations the Allied terms for use of Dutch shipping in United States and Entente ports (see 7th and 21st).

20th March

  • Allied Blockade Committee formed.

21st March

  • First Battles of the Somme 1918 or German Operation Michael begins with Battle of St. Quentin (21st/23rd) (see November 18th, 1916, and April 5th, 1918).

Battles on the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

Somme Battlefields: First Battles of the Somme 1918
  • Passage of the Jordan by British forces (21st/23rd).
  • Destroyer action in North Sea between Allied and German flotillas (see October 17th, 1914).
  • Dutch ships in British ports requisitioned by British Government and Dutch ships in United States ports requisitioned by United States Government (see 18th).
  • M. Marghiloman appointed Rumanian Premier (see 12th and November 8th).
  • M. Constantine Arian appointed Rumanian Foreign Minister (see 12th and November 8th).

23rd March

  • Paris first shelled by long-range gun (from Crépy-en-Valois, 75 miles distant) (see August 15th).

24th March

  • First Battle of Bapaume (Somme: 24th/25th):Bapaume and Péronne taken by German forces (see March 17th and 18th, 1917 and August 29th and September 1st, 1918).

Battles on the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • First action of Es Salt (Palestine) (24th/25th).

25th March

  • Battle of Noyon (Somme). Noyon taken by German forces (see March 18th, 1917 and August 29th, 1918).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • German airship raid on Naples from the Dalmatian coast.

26th March

  • Albert, Chaulnes, and Roye taken by German forces (see March 17th, 1917 and August 22nd and 27th, 1918).
  • Action of Khan Baghdadi (Mesopotamia) (26th/27th).
  • "Doullens Agreement" concluded. Decision taken to appoint General Foch to co-ordinate efforts of British and French Armies (see April 14th).

27th March

  • Battle of Rosières (Somme) (26th/27th).
  • Montdidier taken by German forces (see August 10th).

Battles on the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • First British attack on Amman (palestine) (27th/30th).

28th March

  • First Battle of Arras 1918 (see August 26th).

Battles on the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Ana (Mesopotamia) occupied by British forces.

29th March

  • Poltava (South Russia) captured by German forces.

APRIL 1918

1st April

  • Enzeli (Persia) evacuated by the Russian regular forces (see February 17th).
  • German Expeditionary Force for Finland leaves Danzig (see 3rd).
  • Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Services of Great Britain amalgamated and established a separate service as the Royal Air Force.

3rd April

  • German Expeditionary Force lands in South Finland at Hangö (see 1st, 13th and December 16th).
  • Ekaterinoslav (South Russia) taken by German forces.

4th April

  • Battle of the Avre (France).

Battles on the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Sarikamish (Russian Caucasus) occupied by Turkish forces (see January 2nd, 1915).
  • British submarines at Helsingfors destroyed to avoid capture (3rd/4th) (see 3rd).

5th April

  • Battle of the Ancre 1918 brings to an end the First Battles of the Somme 1918 or the German Kaiserschlacht: Operation Michael (see March 21st).

Battles on the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Japanese and British marines land at Vladivostok (see August 2nd and 3rd).
  • Van (Armenia) retaken by Turkish forces (see May 19th, 1915).

8th April

  • Kharkov (South Russia) captured by German forces.

9th April

  • Battles of the Lys or the German Lys Offensive begins (see 29th) with the Battle of Éstaires (9th/11th). Neuve Chapelle taken by German forces.

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

Ypres Salient Battlefields: Fourth Battle of Ypres (Battle of the Lys) 1918
  • Count Mirbach appointed German Ambassador at Moscow (see July 6th).
  • National Council of the Moldavian Republic (Bessarabia) pass Act of Union with Rumania, with stipulation for local autonomy (see 16th, December 23rd, 1917, and December 10th, 1918).

10th April

  • Battle of Messines 1918 (10th/11th): Messines taken by German forces (see June 14th, 1917 and September 28th, 1918).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Monrovia (Liberia) bombarded by a German submarine (see August 4th, 1917).
  • Third Military Service act passed in British Parliament. Military age limit raised to 50, and Conscription extended to Ireland (see 18th, and June 8th 1916).
  • Settlement Treaty between Germany and Turkey ratified at Berlin (see January 11th, 1917).
  • Agreement reached between Italy and the Yugo-Slavs ("Pact of Rome").

11th April

  • Armentières and Merville taken by German forces (see October 11th and 17th, 1914, August 19th and October 3rd, 1918).
  • French Government, publish text of Emperor of Austria's letter to Prince Sixte of Bourbon proposing peace negotiations (see 15th and March 31st, 1917).

12th April

  • Battle of Hazebrouck (Lys) begins (see 15th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Last airship raid over England in which casualties were inflicted (27) (see January 19th, 1915 and August 5th, 1918).
  • Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig issues Order of the Day to the British Army in France on the serious situation ("Backs to the Wall" order).

13th April

  • Battle of Bailleul (Lys) begins (see 15th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Helsingfors (Finland) captured by German forces (12th/14th) (see 3rd and 4th).
  • Finnish Government announce that all German troops landed in Finland had been despatched at their request.
  • United Diets of Baltic Provinces adopt resolution to form themselves into a separate State within the German Empire.

14th April

  • General Foch appointed Commander-in-Chief of Allied Armies in France [The Belgian forces were not placed under the command of General Foch.] (see March 26th, August 6th, and November 5th).

15th April

  • Battle of Hazebrouck ends (see 12th).
  • Battle of Bailleul ends (see 13th).: Bailleul taken by the German forces (see October 14th, 1914, and August 30th, 1918).
  • Raid by British naval light forces on the kattegat (see November 2nd, 1917).
  • Batum (Georgia) occupied by Turkish forces (see December 27th).
  • Count Czernin, Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister, resigns (see 17th, and December 22nd, 1916).

16th April

  • Passchendaele reoccupied by German forces (see November 6th, 1917 and September 29th, 1918).
  • The Ukraine Government issue protest against union of Bessarabia and Rumania (see 9th and 23rd).

17th April

  • First Battle of Kemmel Ridge or First Battle of Kemmelberg (Lys) begins (see 19th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Baron Burian succeeds Count Czernin as Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister (see 15th, and October 25th).
  • Dr. Wekerle, Hungarian Premier, resigns (see 27th and August 21st, 1917).

18th April

  • Battle of Béthune (Lys).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Third Military Service Act comes into operation in Great Britain (see 10th).

19th April

  • German forces enter the Crimea.
  • First Battle of Kemmel Ridge ends (see 17th and 26th).

20th April

  • Lord Derby, Secretary of State for War, Great Britain, resigns (see December 11th, 1916).
  • Viscount Milner appointed Secretary of State for War, Great Britain

21st April

  • Viscount Motono, Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, resigns (see 22nd, and November 21st, 1916).

22nd April

  • The Trans-Caucasian Council decide to declare independence (night 22nd/23rd) lace September 20th, 1917 and May 6th and 26th, 1918).
  • Baron Goto appointed Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (see 21st, and September 28th).

23rd April

  • Blocking raid by British naval light forces on Ostend and Zeebrugge (see May 9th).
  • Russian Bolshevik Government issue protest against union of Bessarabia and Rumania (see 9th and 16th, and December 10th).
  • Guatemala declares war on Germany (see April 27th, 1917).

24th April

  • Actions of Villers-Bretonneux (Somme) (24th/25th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

25th April

  • Second Battle of Kemmel Ridge or Second Battle of Kemmelberg (Lys) (25th/26th): Mount Kemmel stormed by German forces (see 19th, and August 31st).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

27th April

  • Kars (Georgia) occupied by Turkish forces.
  • First contingent of Italian troops arrive on the French front. [Approximate date.]
  • Dr. Wekerle again appointed Hungarian Prime Minister (see 17th and October 24th).

29th April

  • The Battle of the Scherpenberg (Lys) brings to an end the Battles of the Lys (see 9th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • German Government establish a military dictatorship in The Ukraine. General Skoropadski proclaimed Hetman (see May 9th).

30th April

  • Viborg (Finland) captured by German forces and Finnish White Guards (see 13th).
  • Second action of Es Salt (Palestine) begins (see May 4th).

MAY 1918

1st May

  • Sevastopol taken by German forces (April 30th/May 1st).
  • Part of Russian Black Sea Fleet seized by the Germans (see June 21st, 1917 and June 18th and November 26th, 1918).

2nd May

  • Agreement concluded regarding export of sand and gravel from The Netherlands for German use (see July 15th).

3rd May

  • Samsam es Sultaneh succeeds. Mustaufi ul Mamalek as Persian Prime Minister (see 31st, and January 19th).

4th May

  • Second action of Es Salt ends (see April 30th).
  • Armistice signed at Korenevo between Russia and The Ukraine (German-Ukrainian Command) (see June 12th).

5th May

  • Field-Marshal Lord french appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (see December 15th, 1915).

6th May

  • Turko-German delegates arrive at Batum to negotiate peace with the Georgians and Armenians (see April 22nd, May 26th, and June 8th).

7th May

  • Kirkuk (Mesopotamia) taken by British forces (see 24th).
  • Frederickshamn (South Finland) captured by Finnish White Guards: End of the Finnish Civil War.[The civil war may be said to have begun about March 1st, 1918.]
  • Final Treaty of Peace signed between Rumania and Bulgaria, Central Powers and Turkey (see March 5th), together with various supplementary treaties between the separate contracting parties (see November 10th).

8th May

  • Nicaragua declares war on Germany and on Austria-Hungary (see May 18th, 1917).
  • Rostov (South Russia) captured by German forces.

9th May

  • Blocking attack on Ostend. H.M.S. "Vindictive" sunk to block the harbour (see April 23rd).
  • M. Ustemovich proclaimed President of The Ukraine; General Skoropadski remains Hetman (see April 29th).
  • Joint Trade Committee of Entente Powers formed in Holland.
  • Dr. da Silva Paes, elected Portuguese President (see December 28th, 1917 and December 14th, 1918).

11th May

  • Peace signed in Berlin between Finland and Turkey.

12th May

  • Military Treaty ("Waffenbund") signed between Germany and Austria-Hungary.

14th May

  • Italian naval raid on Pola Harbour.

15th May

  • German submarine bombards St. Kilda (Hebrides).
  • Agreement between Entente Powers, Japan, and China against German penetration in Far East announced.
  • Dr. S.B.C. da Paes, Portuguese Premier, resigns (see 16th, and December 10th, 1917).

16th May

  • Agreement signed at Peking between China and Japan for military co-operation against German and Bolshevik aggression (see 19th).
  • Senhor J.T. de Souza Barboza, appointed Portuguese Secretary of the lnterior [The appointment of Premier lapsed between May 15th and December 23rd. During this period the functions of the office were performed by the Secretary of the Interior.] (see 15th and December 22nd).

17th May

  • Sinn Fein leaders arrested in Ireland and interned (see 25th).

18th May

  • First British retaliatory air raid on German towns. Cologne bombed by day.
  • Alexandropol (Georgia) occupied by Turkish forces.

19th May

  • Last German night aeroplane raid on London in which casualties were inflicted; 49 killed and 177 wounded [There were altogether nineteen aeroplane raids on London during which bombs were dropped, and one air reconnaissance during which no bombs were dropped.] (see May 7th, July 7th and October 19th, 1917 and August 5th, 1918).
  • German air raid on British camps and hospitals at Etaples; heavy casualties.
  • Agreement signed between China and Japan for naval co-operation (see 16th).

23rd May

  • Costa Rica declares war on Germany (see September 21st, 1917).

24th May

  • Kirkuk (Mesopotamia) evacuated by the British forces (see 7th and October 25th).
  • General F.C. Poole lands at Murmansk to organise the North Russia Expeditionary Force (see June 4th, 8th and 23rd).

25th May

  • British Government publish account of Irish-German plots (see 17th).

26th May

  • Trans-Caucasian Federal Government (see September 20th, 1917 and April 22nd, 1918), dissolved.
  • Georgia declares independence and forms a National Government.
  • Armenian National Council assume charge of Armenian affairs (see June 8th).
  • Tatar National Council proclaim establishment of a "Republic of Azerbaijan."

27th May

  • Battle of the Aisne 1918 or Third Battle of the Aisne or the German Operation Blücher-Yorck begins (see June 6th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • Craonne again taken by German forces (see May 4th, 1917 and October 12th, 1918).

29th May

  • Soissons again taken by German forces (see 27th and August 2nd).
  • Peace Treaty signed at Vienna between Austria-Hungary and Finland.

30th May

  • Fère-en-Tardenois taken by German forces (see 27th and July 28th).

31st May

  • German forces reach the Marne. Château-Thierry and Dormans captured (see July 21st).
  • Battle of the Skra di Legen (Macedonia).
  • Samsam es Sultaneh, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see 3rd and June 20th).
  • M. G. Cooreman succeeds Baron de Broqueville as Belgian prime Minister (Baron de Broqueville was appointed in 1911) (see November 21st). [Baron de Broqueville and M. Cooreman presided over the Cabinet without the title of Prime Minister (see November 21st).]

JUNE 1918

3rd June

  • British, French, and Italian Governments make declarations supporting national aspirations of Poles, Czecho-Slovaks, and Yugo-Slavs (see February 20th, June 29th, August 13th, September 25th and November 16th).

4th June

  • British Marines land at Pechenga (North Russia) (see May 24th).
  • The Don Cossacks declare independence.

5th June

  • British independent Air Force in France constituted under tactical command of Major-General Sir H.M. Trenchard.

6th June

  • Battle of the Aisne, 1918, ends (see May 27th).
  • Dutch hospital ship "Koningen Regentes" sunk by mine or torpedo.
  • General Guillaumat, Allied Commander-in-Chief, Salonika, recalled to Paris (see 15th and 18th and December 22nd, 1917).

7th June

  • British force lands at Kem (North Russia) (see May 24th).
  • Omsk (Siberia) occupied by Czecho-Slovak forces (see November 18th).

8th June

  • German Expeditionary force to the Caucasus lands at Poti (Georgia).
  • Russian Bolshevik Government order Entente forces in North Russia to leave the country (see 30th, and May 24th).
  • Georgian Government and Armenian National Council sign peace treaties with Turkey (see May 6th and 26th).
  • Georgian Government sign peace treaty with Germany (see May 6th and 26th).

9th June

  • Battle of the Matz or the German Operation Gneisenau begins (see 14th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • First sitting of Anglo-German Conference at The Hague on prisoners of war.

10th June

  • Naval action off Premuda Island (Adriatic). Austrian battleship "Szent Istvan" sunk by italian motor launch.

12th June

  • Tiflis (Georgia) occupied by a German force (see 8th, and December 27th).
  • Kurdamir (East Caucasus) occupied by Turkish forces.
  • Armistice concluded at Kiev between the whole State of The Ukraine and Russian Bolshevik Republic (see May 4th).

14th June

  • Battle of the Matz ends (see 9th).
  • Tabriz (North Persia) again occupied by Turkish forces (see January 30th, 1915).

15th June

  • Battle of the Piave begins (see 24th).
  • General Guillaumat appointed Governor of Paris (see 6th).

18th June

  • Russian battleship "Svobodnaya Rossiya'' destroyed in Black Sea to avoid surrender to the Germans (see May 4th).
  • General Franchet d'Esperey appointed Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces, Salonika (see 6th).
  • M. Radoslavov, Bulgarian Premier, resigns (date of appointment July 20th, 1913). M. Malinov appointed Premier and Foreign Minister.

20th June

  • Samsam es Sultaneh reappointed Persian Prime Minister (see May 31st and August 3rd).

21st June

  • Dr. Ernst Ritter von Seidler, Austrian Premier, resigns (see June 23rd, 1917).

23rd June

  • British Expeditionary Forces "Syren" and "Elope" join the North Russian Expeditionary Force at Murmansk (see 4th, May 24th and July 26th).

24th June

  • Battle of the Piave ends (see 15th).

27th June

  • British hospital ship "Llandovery Castle" sunk by submarine off Irish coast.

29th June

  • United States Government announce their view that all branches of the Slav races should be completely freed from German and Austrian rule (see 3rd).

30th June

  • First contingent of United States troops arrive in Italy (see November 3rd and 4th, 1917).
  • Murman Railway from Murmansk to Soroki seized by Allied forces (29th/30th) (see 23rd).
  • Murman Soviet (Sovdep) decide to support the Entente against the Bolshevik Government (see 8th and July 7th and November 20th).
  • Treaty signed between the Czecho-Slovaks and Italy, by which Italy recognises Czecho-Slovak Council and their jurisdiction over nationals.

JULY 1918

1st July

  • Affair of Nyamakura (East Africa) [Near Quelimane (Portuguese East Africa). This was the most southerly point reached by Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck's force.] (1st/3rd).

3rd July

  • Sultan Mohammed V of Turkey dies. Mohammed VI succeeds to the throne (see November 14th, 1914).

4th July

  • Battle of Le Hamel (Somme).
  • Siberian Council declare Independence (see 6th).

6th July

  • French and Italian forces begin offensive in Albania (see 10th and 22nd).
  • German Ambassador at Moscow (Count Mirbach) murdered (see April 9th).
  • Declaration of Siberian Independence cancelled (see 4th).

7th July

  • Agreement signed between France, Great Britain, United States of America, and Murman Sovdep concerning Allied expedition to Murman Coast (see June 30th).

9th July

  • Admiral von Hintze succeeds Herr von Kuhlmann as German Foreign Minister (see August 5th, 1917 and October 4th, 1918).

10th July

  • Berat (Albania) taken by Italian forces (see 6th and February 17th, 1916).
  • New Government formed at Vladivostok under General Horvat (see August 24th).

12th July

  • Haiti declares war on Germany (see June 16th, 1917).
  • Japanese battleship "Kawachi" destroyed by internal explosion.

13th July

  • Irkutsk (Siberia) occupied by Czecho-Slovak forces (see October 14th).

14th July

  • Kazan (East Russia) captured by Czecho-Slovak forces.

15th July

  • Second Battle of the Marne begins (see August 7th).

Battles of the Western Front: German 1918 Spring Offensives to Break the Deadlock

  • British Government protest against "Sand and Gravel Agreement" between Germany and The Netherlands (see May 2nd).

16th July

  • Field-Marshal Conrad von Hötzendorff, Commander-in-Chief, Austro-Hungarian Armies, relieved of his command.
  • Ex-Tsar Nicholas II, ex-Tsaritsa and family murdered at Ekaterinburg (see March 15th, 1917).

17th July

  • RMS Carpathia sunk by a German U-Boat in the Atlantic. This was the same ship which had rescued survivors from the RMS Titanic in April 1912 and which rescued Moina Michael and hundreds of other stranded Americans in Naples at the outbreak of the war in 1914.

18th July

  • Sir L. Worthington-Evans succeeds Lord Robert Cecil as British Minister for Blockade (see February 23rd, 1916).

19th July

  • Honduras declares war on Germany (see May 17th, 1917).
  • British operations in Trans-Caspia begin (see August 26th).
  • United States cruiser "San Diego" sunk by mine off Fire Island (Atlantic coast).

20th July

  • German forces retreat across the Marne (see 18th).
  • Last attempt to attack the British Isles with aeroplanes (unsuccessful) [There were altogether 59 aeroplane raids against the British Isles during which bombs were dropped. There were also 11 reconnaissance flights over parts of Great Britain or in the vicinity of the coast when no bombs were dropped. See also May 19th and August 5th.] (see December 21st, 1914, and August 5th, 1918).
  • British defence of Resht (North-West Persia).

21st July

  • Château-Thierry retaken by Allied forces (see 18th, 20th, and May 31st).

22nd July

  • Allied offensive in Albania checked (see 6th, 10th, and August 22nd).

23rd July

  • Battle of Soissons or the Battle of Soissonais and of the Ourcq begins [British dates] (see August 2nd).

26th July

  • Bulk of French Expeditionary Force troops join the North Russia Expeditionary Force at Murmansk (see June 23rd).
  • Coup d'état in Baku: Bolshevik Government replaced by Central Caspian Dictatorship.
  • British Government declare to M. Petrov that they have no intention of infringing the territorial integrity of Russia (see August 6th).

28th July

  • Fère-en-Tardenois retaken by Allied forces (see May 30th).

30th July

  • Field-Marshal von Eichhorn, commanding German Army in The Ukraine, assassinated in Kiev (see April 29th).

AUGUST 1918

1st August

  • Allied Expeditionary Force attack and capture the defences of Archangel (see 2nd).

2nd August

  • Battle of Soissons or Battle of Soissonais and of the Ourcq ends (see July 23rd).
  • Soissons retaken by Allied forces (see May 29th).
  • Pro-Entente revolution in Archangel. Entente forces enter the town (see 1st).
  • Japanese Government decide to land troops at Vladivostok (see 11th and April 5th).

3rd August

  • British troops land at Vladivostok (see 2nd and April 5th).
  • British ambulance transport "Warilda" sunk by submarine.
  • Samsam es Sultaneh, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see 7th, and June 20th).

4th August

  • British force arrives at Baku (Caspian Sea) (see 26th, and July 19th).
  • Bolshevik Committee at Enzeli arrested by British military authorities.

5th August

  • Last attempt to attack England with airships (unsuccessful - "L.-70" destroyed) [There were altogether 51 airship raids against the British Isles during which bombs were dropped. There were also 8 attempted raids which either did not reach the coast, or which, for some other reason, failed in action. There were also 59 aeroplane attacks in which bombs were dropped (see July 20th), and 11 aeroplane reconnaissances. Total number of air raids in which bombs were dropped was 110.] (see January 19th, 1915 and April 12th and July 20th, 1918).

6th August

  • British Government issue Declaration to Russian peoples, stating that they have no intention of interfering in Russian politics (see July 26th).
  • General Foch created Marshal of France.

7th August

  • Second Battle of the Marne ends (see July 18th).
  • French cruiser "Dupetit Thouars" sunk by submarine in the Atlantic.
  • Vossuq ed Douleh appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 3rd and May 29th, 1917).

8th August

  • Allied Amiens Offensive or Second Battles of the Somme 1918 begin (see 3rd September).
  • Battle of Amiens begins (see 11th).
  • Battle of Montdidier begins (see 15th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

Somme Battlefields: Second Battles of the Somme 1918
  • British Government inform Finnish Government that they are in no way hostile to Finnish aspirations on the Murman Coast and in Karelia.

10th August

  • Montdidier retaken by French forces (see 8th, and March 27th).
  • Mushaver ul Mamalek, Persian Foreign Minister, resigns (see 11th and January 19th).

11th August

  • Battle of Amiens ends (see 8th).
  • German airship "L.-53" destroyed off Frisian coast. (Last German airship to be destroyed).
  • First Japanese contingents arrive at Vladivostok (see 2nd and 24th and September 5th).
  • Mushaver ul Mamalek reappointed Persian Foreign Minister (see 10th).

13th August

  • The Czecho-Slovaks declare War on Germany. [October 28th is officially accepted as the date of entry into the war of Czecho-Slovakia as a belligerent nation. This was the date of the declaration of independence at Prague. On August 13th the declaration was made in the name of the Czecho-Slovaks as a people.]
  • British Government recognise the Czecho-Slovaks as an Allied nation (see June 3rd and September 3rd).
  • Admiral von Capelle, German Minister of Marine, resigns (see 15th and March 15th, 1916).

15th August

  • Battle of Montdidier ends (see 8th).
  • Last bombardment of Paris by German long-range gun (see March 23rd).
  • Action of Bairam Ali (Trans-Caspia): Trans-Caspian Government defeated by Bolshevik forces.
  • Vice-Admiral von Behnke appointed German Minister of Marine (see 13th).

17th August

  • Second Battle of Noyon begins (see 29th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Slovene National Council meet at Ljubljana (Laibach) (see November 2nd).

18th August

  • Merv (Trans-Caspia) taken by Bolshevik forces (see November 1st). [Approximate date.]
  • British advance in Flanders begins: Action of Outtersteene Ridge.

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

19th August

  • Merville retaken by British forces (see April 11th).

21st August

  • Second Battles of the Somme 1918 Phase 2 begins with the Battle of Albert 1918 (21st/23rd) (see September 3rd).
  • Second Battle of Bapaume 1918 begins (see March 24th and September 3rd).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

22nd August

  • Albert recaptured by British forces (see 21st, and March 26th).
  • Austrian forces begin counter-offensive in Albania (see July 6th and 22nd).

24th August

  • Coup d'état by General Horvat at Vladivostok (see July 10th).
  • Battle of Dukhovskaya (Eastern Siberia) (23rd/24th). Bolsheviki decisively defeated by Allied forces. [Japanese, with one British battalion.]

26th August

  • Second Battles of Arras 1918 begin with Battle of the Scarpe 1918 (see 30th, March 28th and September 3rd).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Berat (Albania) retaken by Austrian forces (see 22nd and July 10th and October 1st).
  • Defence of Baku (Caspian Sea) against Turkish attack begins (see 4th, July 19th and September 15th).

27th August

  • Roye recaptured by British forces (see March 26th).
  • British force occupies Krasnovodsk on Caspian Sea.
  • German and Russian Bolshevik Governments conclude complementary treaty of peace (see March 3rd).

28th August

  • Affair near Kaakhka (Trans-Caspia).

29th August

  • Bapaume retaken by British forces (see March 24th).
  • Noyon retaken by French forces (see March 25th).
  • Second Battle of Noyon ends (see 17th).

30th August

  • Battle of the Scarpe, 1918, ends (see 26th)
  • Bailleul retaken by British forces (see April 15th).
  • Lieut.-General Sir C.F.N. Macready, Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain, resigns (see February 22nd, 1916, and September 11th, 1918).

31st August

  • German forces evacuate Mount Kemmel (see April 26th).
  • Captain Cromie R.N., British Naval Attaché, murdered by Bolsheviki in British Embassy, Petrograd.

SEPTEMBER 1918

1st September

  • Péronne retaken by British forces (see March 24th).

2nd September

  • Battle of the Drocourt-Quéant Line (2nd/3rd). Canadian Forces capture ground near Quéant.

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Italian contingent lands at Murmansk to join Allied Expeditionary Force (see July 26th).

3rd September

  • Second Battles of the Somme, 1918, end (see August 21st).
  • Second Battles of Arras, 1918, end (see August 26th).
  • Lens occupied by British forces (see October 4th, 1914).
  • Second Battle of Bapaume ends (see August 31st).
  • United States Government recognises the Czecho-Slovaks as possessing a de facto Government (see August 13th and October 21st).

4th September

  • Obozerskaya (North Russia) occupied by Allied forces (see August 2nd).
  • United States contingent lands at Murmansk to join Allied Expeditionary Force (see 2nd).
  • Hsu-Shih-Chang elected President of China (see October 11th).

5th September

  • Khabarovsk (Eastern Siberia) taken by Japanese forces (see 18th, and August 11th).

11th September

  • Ukhtinskaya (Murman front) captured by Allied forces.
  • Lieut.-General Sir G.M.W. Macdonogh appointed Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain (see August 30th).

12th September

  • Battle of St. Mihiel begins. First large-scale Allied offensive carried out separately by American Expeditionary Force (AEF) on the Western Front (see 16th September).
  • Battles of the Hindenburg Line (see October 9th) begin as the series of Allied offensives starting with the Battle of Havrincourt.

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Actions of Chamova (Archangel front) begin (see 14th).

14th September

  • Actions of Chamova end (see 12th).
  • British evacuation of Baku begins (see 15th, and August 26th).

15th September

  • Battle of the Dobropolje [Called by the Serbs "Battle of the Moglenitza"] (Macedonia) begins (see 16th).
  • Baku finally evacuated by the British forces (night 14th/15th) (see August 26th and November 17th).
  • Austrian Government send Note to President Wilson suggesting an "unofficial" peace conference (see 16th, and January 12th, 1917).
  • German Government make definite peace offer to Belgium (see January 10th and 12th, 1917).

16th September

  • Battle of St. Mihiel ends (see 12th).
  • Battle of the Dobropolje ends (see 15th).
  • Last German aeroplane raid on Paris (see August 30th, 1914).
  • President Wilson replies to the Austrian Note rejecting suggestion for a peace conference (see 15th, and October 4th).
  • H.M.S. "Glatton" sunk by explosion in Dover harbour.

18th September

  • Battle of Epéhy in the Allied offensives advancing to the Hindenburg Line.

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Blagovyeschensk (Siberia) occupied by Japanese forces (see 5th).
  • Battle of Monastir-Doiran (see 24th), including Battle of Doiran, 1918), begins (see 19th).

19th September

  • Battles of Megiddo (Sharon and Nablus) (Palestine) begin (see 23rd and 25th).
  • Battle of Doiran, 1918, ends (see 18th and 22nd).

20th September

  • Nazareth and Beisan (Palestine) occupied by British cavalry (see 19th).

22nd September

  • Doiran occupied by British forces (see 19th and December 11th, 1915).

23rd September

  • Haifa, Acre, and Es Salt (Palestine) occupied by British forces (see 19th).
  • Prilep (South Serbia) taken by French forces (see November 16th, 1915).
  • Ma'an (on Hejaz Railway) evacuated by the Turkish garrison (see 29th).

24th September

  • Battle of Monastir-Doiran ends (see 18th).

25th September

  • Ishtip (see October 19th, 1915) and Veles (see October 21st, 1915) retaken by Serbian forces.
  • British cavalry cut Hejaz railway at Amman.
  • Battles of Megiddo end (see 19th).
  • Yugo-Slav State recognised as independent by Italy (see June 3rd and October 5th).

26th September

  • Allied Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins. Battle of Champagne and Argonne begins (see October 15th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

27th September

  • Battle of the Canal du Nord begins (see October 1st).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Bulgarian Government ask Entente Powers for an armistice (see 30th).

28th September

  • The Allied Flanders Advance begins with the Battle of the Flanders Peaks (see October 10th) and the Fifth Battle of Ypres 1918 (see November 10th, 1917, and October 2nd, 1918).
  • Messines retaken by British forces (see April 10th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

Ypres Salient Battlefields: Battle of Ypres 1918
  • Baron Goto, Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, resigns (see 29th, and April 22nd).

29th September

  • Battle of the St. Quentin Canal begins (see October 2nd).
  • Passchendaele retaken by Allied forces (see 28th, and April 16th).
  • Dixmude retaken by Belgian forces (see November 10th, 1914).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Turkish garrison of Ma'an surrenders near Amman (Palestine) (see 23rd).
  • German force in last Africa recrosses the Rovuma and again enters German territory (see November 25th, 1917, and November 1st, 1918).
  • Takashi Hara succeeds Count Terauchi as Japanese Prime Minister (see October 9th, 1916).
  • Count Yasuya Uchida appointed Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (see 28th).
  • Lieut.-General Kenichi Oshima, Japanese Minister for War, resigns (see 30th, and March 30th, 1916).

30th September

  • Armistice between Bulgaria and Entente Powers signed (see 27th).
  • Hostilities between Bulgaria and Entente Powers cease at 12 noon.
  • Canadian contingent lands at Archangel to join Allied Expeditionary Force (see August 2nd).
  • Count Hertling, German Imperial Chancellor, resigns (see October 30th, 1917, and October 4th, 1918).
  • Lieut.-General Giichi Tanaka appointed Japanese Minister for War (see 29th).

OCTOBER 1918

1st October

  • Battle of the Canal du Nord ends (see September 27th).
  • St. Quentin retaken by French forces (see September 27th).
  • Berat (Albania) retaken by Italian forces (see August 26th).
  • Damascus taken by British and Arab forces.
  • Allies establish net and mine barrage across Straits of Otranto.

2nd October

  • Battle of Ypres 1918 ends (see September 28th).
  • Battle of the St. Quentin Canal ends (see September 29th).
  • Durazzo bombarded by Italian and British warships (see 14th, and February 27th, 1916).

3rd October

  • Battle of the Beaurevoir Line begins (see 5th).
  • Armentières retaken by British forces (see April 11th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Action near Pyavozero Lake (Murman front).

4th October

  • Prince Max of Baden appointed German Imperial Chancellor, and succeeds Admiral von Hintze as Foreign Minister (see September 30th, July 9th, and November 9th).
  • German and Austro-Hungarian Governments send Notes to President Wilson proposing an armistice [The German note was received by President Wilson on October 6th and the Austrian on October 7th.] (see 8th and 18th).
  • Austro-Hungarian Government send Note to President Wilson proposing an armistice (see 27th, and September 16th).
  • King Ferdinand of Bulgaria abdicates in favour of his son Prince Boris (see September 30th and November 1st).
  • General Ironside takes over command of Allied forces at Archangel.

5th October

  • Battle of the Beaurevoir Line ends (see 3rd).
  • Vranje retaken by Serbian forces (see October 15th, 1915).
  • Yugo-Slav delegates meet at Agram and decide on the formation of a United National Council (see 29th, and September 25th).

6th October

  • Sidon (Syria) occupied by British forces.

7th October

  • Beirut (Syria) occupied by French forces.
  • Elbasan (Albania) taken by Italian forces (see February 2nd, 1916).

8th October

  • Second Battle of Cambrai 1918 begins (see 9th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • President Wilson replies to Note of German Govermnent, and demands evacuation of occupied territories as first condition of armistice (see 4th and 12th).

9th October

  • Cambrai city captured by British forces (see August 26th, 1914).
  • End of Second Battle of Cambrai (see 8th) brings Battles of the Hindenburg Line to a close (see September 12th).
  • Major-General Scheuch succeeds Major-General von Stein as German Minister for War (see October 30th, 1916, and December 17th, 1918).

10th October

  • Battle of the Flanders Peaks ends (see September 28th).
  • Irish mail boat "Leinster" sunk by submarine.
  • Pristina. (Serbia) retaken by French forces (see November 23rd, 1915).

11th October

  • Prizren (Serbia) retaken by French forces (see December 1st, 1915).
  • Nish (Serbia) reoccupied by Allied forces (see November 5th, 1915).
  • Feng-Kuo-Chang, President of China, retires (see July 6th, 1917 and September 4th, 1918).

12th October

  • Craonne again captured by French forces (see May 27th).
  • Action of Dushak (Trans-Caspia).
  • German Government reply to President Wilson's Note and accept conditions (see 8th and 14th).
  • British Government recognise the Polish National Army as autonomous, allied and co-belligerent.

13th October

  • Laon and La Fère retaken by French forces (see August 30th, 1914).
  • Tripoli (Syria) occupied by Allied forces.
  • Izzet Pasha succeeds Talaat Pasha as Turkish Grand Vizier (see February 4th, 1917).

14th October

  • Battle of Courtrai or Battle of Roulers or Second Battle of Belgium begins (see 19th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Roulers recaptured by Allied forces (see October 18th, 1914).
  • Durazzo (see 2nd), Novi Bazar (see November 20th, 1915), and Ipek (see December 6th, 1915) retaken by Italian forces.
  • British troops from Vladivostok reach Irkutsk (Siberia) (see 18th and July 13th and August 3rd).
  • President Wilson replies to German Government, attaching further military conditions to the terms of armistice, and warning against further breaches of laws of war, and insists on dealing only with a democratic Government (see 12th and 20th).
  • Turkish Government Note to President Wilson proposing an armistice delivered at Washington.

15th October

  • Battle of Champagne and Argonne ends (see September 26th).
  • Menin captured by Allied forces (see October 9th, 1914).
  • Homs (Syria) occupied by British cavalry.

16th October

  • Austrian Emperor issues manifesto proclaiming a Federal State on the principle of Nationality (excluding Hungary) (see 5th and 29th).

17th October

  • Ostend (see October 15th, 1914), Lille (see October 12th, 1914), and Douai (see August 26th, 1914) retaken by Allied forces.
  • Battle of the Selle begins (see 25th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

18th October

  • British troops from Vladivostok reach Omsk (see 14th).
  • President Wilson replies to Austro-Hungarian Note of October 4th (see 27th).

19th October

  • Battle of Courtrai or Battle of Roulers or Second Battle of Belgium ends (see 14th).
  • Zeebrugge and Bruges reoccupied by Belgian forces (see October 12th and 14th, 1914).

20th October

  • Belgian coast completely reoccupied by Allied forces (see October 15th, 1914).
  • German Government reply to President Wilson's Note accepting proposals contained therein (see 14th and 23rd).

21st October

  • The Ban of Croatia refuses offer of Military Governor of Agram to suppress the Yugo-Slav National Council (see 5th and 29th).
  • The Czecho-Slovaks declare independence (see August 13th, September 3rd, and November 14th).

22nd October

  • Affair of Imad (Aden).

23rd October

  • British advance on Mosul (Mesopotamia) begins (see November 4th).
  • President Wilson replies to German Note of the 20th, and agrees, to submit the matter to the Allied and Associated Governments (see 27th, and November 3rd).

24th October

  • Battle of Vittorio Veneto begins (see November 4th).
  • Dr. Wekerle, Hungarian Premier, resigns (see April 27th and November 1st).

25th October

  • Battle of the Selle ends (see 17th).
  • Kirkuk (Mesopotamia) again taken by British forces (see May 24th).
  • Count Andrassy succeeds Baron Burian as Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister (see April 17th and November 1st).

26th October

  • Aleppo (Syria) taken by British forces.
  • King of Montenegro issues manifesto in favour of a confederated Yugo-Slavia with autonomous States (see 29th, and November 7th and 23rd).

27th October

  • Austrian Government ask Italy for an armistice (see 4th and November 3rd).
  • German Government acknowledges President Wilson's Note of October 23rd.
  • Austro-Hungarian Government submit further Note to President Wilson asking for immediate armistice "without awaiting the result of other negotiations") (see 4th and 18th).
  • General Von Ludendorff resigns (see August 29th, 1916).

28th October

  • Muslimiya Junction, north of Aleppo (Syria), occupied by British cavalry.
  • Battle of Sharqat (Mesopotamia) begins (see 30th).

29th October

  • San Giovanni di Medua (Albania) occupied by Italian forces (see January 25th, 1916).
  • Yugo-Slav National Council at Agram repudiate Imperial policy and declare the independence of the Yugo-Slavs (see 5th, 21st, 26th and November 7th and 23rd).

30th October

  • Armistice between Turkey and Entente Powers signed at Mudros (see 31st).
  • Battle of Sharqat ends (see 28th). Turkish army on the Tigris surrenders.
  • Fiume surrendered to the Croats by the Hungarian authorities.
  • "National Council of Fiume" proclaim the independence of the city and announce desire for union with Italy (see November 5th).
  • Croation Congress (Sabor) unanimously adhere to Yugo-Slav declaration of independence (see 29th).

31st October

  • Hostilities between Entente and Turkey cease at 12 noon (see 30th).
  • Scutari (Albania) retaken by Italian forces (see January 23rd, 1916).
  • Revolutions in Vienna and Budapest (see November 1st, 12th and 16th).
  • Count Tisza assassinated in Vienna (see May 23rd, 1917).
  • Austrian Emperor makes over the Austro-Hungarian Fleet to the Yugo-Slav National Council (see 29th).

NOVEMBER 1918

1st November

  • Battle of Valenciennes begins (see 2nd).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Belgrade retaken by Serbian forces (see October 9th, 1915, and December 9th, 1918).
  • Merv retaken by British and Russian forces [Approximate date.] (see August 18th).
  • German force in East Africa enters Rhodesia and attacks Fife (see 9th and September 29th).
  • Austrian battleship "Viribus Unitis" sunk in Pola harbour.
  • "State of War" begins between The Ukraine and Poland (see 23rd).
  • King Boris of Bulgaria abdicates (see October 4th).
  • Independent Hungarian Government formed. Count Karolyi appointed Premier (see October 24th and 31st).
  • Baron von Flotow succeeds Count Andrassy (provisionally) as Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister (see October 24th and October 25th).

2nd November

  • Battle of Valenciennes ends (see 1st and 3rd).
  • Last British merchant vessels (S.S. "Surada" and "Murcia") sunk by submarine (in the Mediterranean).
  • Administration of Carniola taken over from the Austro-Hungarian authorities by Slovene leaders (see August 17th).

3rd November

  • Valenciennes occupied by British forces (see 2nd, and August 25th, 1914).
  • Allied Governments agree to Germany's proposal for an armistice and peace on basis of President Wilson's proposals of January 8th (see 5th and October 23rd).
  • Armistice between Austria-Hungary and the Entente signed (see 4th, 15th, and October 27th).
  • Trieste occupied by Italian forces.
  • Mutiny breaks out in the German fleet at Kiel (see August 3rd, 1917).

4th November

  • Battle of the Sambre including the Second Battle of Guise (4th/5th).

Battles of the Western Front: 1918 Allied Advance to Victory

  • Battle of Vittorio Veneto ends (see October 24th).
  • Hostilities between Austria-Hungary and the Entente cease (see 3rd and 15th).
  • Antivari (Montenegro) occupied by Italian naval forces (see January 22nd, 1916).
  • Mosul occupied by British forces (see October 23rd).

5th November

  • Marshal Foch placed in supreme strategical direction of all forces operating against Germany on all fronts (see April 14th).
  • Fiume occupied by Italian naval forces (see 18th and October 30th).
  • H.M.S. "Campania" sunk by collision in the Firth of Forth.
  • President Wilson sends final Note to the German Government with Allies' acceptance of armistice proposals (see 3rd and 8th).

6th November

  • Rethel taken by French forces.
  • Sedan taken by United States forces (see August 29th, 1914).
  • King Peter of Serbia re-enters Belgrade (see 1st and January 17th, 1916).

7th November

  • Bavaria proclaimed a Republic.
  • Yugo-Slav conference at Geneva decide to form a joint Yugo-Slav-Serbian Government to control military and foreign affairs (see 23rd, and October 29th).

8th November

  • German armistice delegates reach Allied General Headquarters (see 11th and October 23rd).
  • Maubeuge retaken by British forces (see September 7th, 1914).
  • M. Marghiloman, Rumanian Premier, and M. Arian, Rumanian Foreign Minister, resign (see March 21st, and December 1st).

9th November

  • Alexandretta (Syria) occupied by Entente naval forces.
  • Kasama (Rhodesia) taken by Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck's force (see 1st and 13th).
  • H.M.S. "Britannia" sunk by submarine in the Atlantic (last warship so lost).
  • Revolution breaks out in Berlin.
  • German Imperial Chancellor (Prince Max) announces that the Kaiser has decided to abdicate. Prince Max becomes Regent. Herr Ebert becomes Imperial Chancellor (see 10th, 28th and October 4th).
  • Joint Declaration by British and French Governments regarding future of Syria and Mesopotamia.
  • Czech forces at Ekaterinenburg proclaim national independence.

10th November

  • Mézières retaken by French forces (see August 27th, 1914).
  • Ghent reoccupied by Belgian forces (see October 12th, 1914).
  • Allied forces cross the Danube at Ruschuk and enter Rumania.
  • The Kaiser crosses the frontier into Holland (see 9th and 28th).
  • King of Rumania announces that the Rumanian nation have taken up arms again on the side of the Allies (see December 6th, 1917).

11th November

  • Mons retaken by British forces (see August 24th, 1914).
  • Armistice concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. [Signed in Marshal Foch's special train at Rethondes, station in the Forest of Compiègne.] Hostilities on the Western front cease at 11 a.m. (see 8th and December 14th).
  • British Government recognise Latvian Provisional Government as independent (see January 12th).
  • New National Government formed in Estonia (see 16th, and January 13th).

12th November

  • Emperor of Austria abdicates (see October 31st).
  • Allied fleet passes through the Dardanelles (see 13th and October 30th).
  • German-Austrian Republic proclaimed.

18th November

  • Allied fleet arrives at Constantinople (see 12th and 21st).
  • German force in East Africa reaches the Chambezi River (Rhodesia). (News of armistice received) (see 9th, 14th and 25th).

14th November

  • Hostilities in East Africa cease.
  • Professor Masaryk elected First President of the Czecho-Slovak Republic (see October 21st).
  • H.M.S. "Cochrane" wrecked at entrance to Liverpool.

15th November

  • German cruiser "Königsberg" with German naval delegates, enters Firth of Forth to arrange surrender of the German fleet (see 20th and 21st).
  • Hungarian Government (see 1st) concludes separate armistice with General Officer Commanding Allied Army (General Henry), at Belgrade (see 3rd).
  • General Petlyura commences revolt against The Ukraine Government (see December 11th).

16th November

  • Allied Armies begin march into Germany.
  • Polish Government (M. Pilsudski) issue declaration proclaiming Poland an Independent and Sovereign State (see June 3rd).
  • New National Government in Estonia order general mobilisation (see 11th).
  • Hungary declares Independence (see 1st and October 31st).

17th November

  • Mulhouse again occupied by French forces (see August 25th, 1914).
  • Baku again occupied by British forces (see September 15th).
  • M. Moraczewski appointed Polish Prime Minister (see 16th).
  • Yugo-Slav National Council at Agram protest against the Italian occupation of Fiume (see 5th and 18th).

18th November

  • Last German troops recross French frontier (see August 2nd, 1914).
  • Brussels reoccupied by Belgian forces (see 21st, and August 20th, 1914).
  • Italian troops reinforce naval detachment in Fiume (see 5th and 17th).
  • Counter-revolutionary coup d'état at Omsk. Russian Admiral Kolchak proclaimed "Dictator of all Russia".

19th November

  • Metz occupied by French forces.
  • Antwerp reoccupied by Belgian forces (see October 10th, 1914).
  • General Pétain created Marshal of France (see May 15th, 1917).

20th November

  • Luxembourg frontier crossed by United States forces (see August 2nd, 1914).
  • First contingent of German submarines surrender to the British Navy at Harwich (see 15th).
  • General Marushevski appointed Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of Russian forces in North Russia (Archangel) (see June 30th).

21st November

  • German High Seas Fleet arrives at Rosyth, en route for internment in Scapa Flow (see 15th and 20th).
  • Belgian Government reinstated at Brussels (see 18th, and August 17th, 1914).
  • Namur occupied by British forces (see August 25th, 1914).
  • French troops land in Constantinople (see 13th).
  • Greek, Serbian and Rumanian Governments issue circular memorandum announcing their decision to strengthen the union between the three countries by all available means.
  • M. L. Delacroix succeeds M. Cooreman as Belgian Prime Minister [M. Delacroix was the first Minister to hold the title of Prime Minister. See note to entry of May 31st.] (see May 31st) and M. Masson succeeds Lieut.-General de Ceuninck as Minister for War (see August 4th, 1917).

23rd November

  • Lemberg captured by Polish forces (see 1st).
  • Yugo-Slav National Council vote for union with Serbia and formation of a common State with Serbia and Montenegro (see 7th, 29th, October 29th and December 4th).

24th November

  • British and United States troops reach German frontier (see December 1st).

25th November

  • Strasbourg occupied by French forces.
  • German forces in East Africa surrender to Allied forces at Abercorn (Rhodesia) (see 13th and 14th).

26th November

  • Last German troops recross Belgian frontier (see August 4th, 1914).
  • French troops cross German frontier.
  • Allied fleet arrives at Sevastopol and takes over remainder of the Russian Black Sea Fleet from the Germans (see 13th, and May 1st).
  • United States force enters Fiume (see 17th).

28th November

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II signs abdication (see 9th and 10th).
  • Narva (Estonia) captured by Bolshevik forces (see March 4th).
  • The General Congress of The Bukovina decide in favour of complete union with Rumania (see December 7th).

29th November

  • Montenegrin National Assembly (Skupshtina) meet at Podgoritsa and vote for union with Serbia (see 23rd).

30th November

  • Rumanian Government re-established at Bukharest (see December 1st, 1916).

DECEMBER 1918

1st December

  • British and United States troops cross the German frontier (see November 24th). Trèves occupied by United States troops.
  • General Coanda appointed Rumanian Premier and Foreign Minister (see 12th, and November 8th).
  • National Assembly of the Rumanians of Transylvania, the Banat and other districts of Hungary, assembled at Alba-Julia (Transylvania), decree their union with Rumania (see 7th, 10th and 27th).

3rd December

  • Last Bulgarian troops evacuate the Dobrudja (see September 2nd, 1916).

4th December

  • H.M.S. "Cassandra" sunk by mine in the Baltic (night 4th/5th).
  • Demobilisation of the British Army begins.
  • Yugo-Slav National Council at Agram proclaim the union of all Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in one State (see November 23rd and 29th).

6th December

  • Cologne entered by British troops (see 12th and November 24th).

7th December

  • Deputation from the National Council of The Bukovina arrives at Jassy to inform Rumanian Government that National Council has voted for union with Rumania (see 1st, 10th and November 28th).

8th December

  • Coblenz occupied by United States troops (see 1st).
  • Naval action in the Caspian between British and Bolshevik vessels.

9th December

  • Lahej (Southern Arabia) reoccupied by British forces (see July 4th, 1915).
  • Serbian Government reinstated at Belgrade (see May 7th, 1916 and November 1st and 6th, 1918).

10th December

  • The Bessarabian National Council abrogate the stipulations for local autonomy and declare the unconditional union of Bessarabia with Rumania (see 1st and April 9th).

11th December

  • Odessa occupied by Petlyura's Ukrainian revolutionary forces (see 20th, March 13th and November 15th).
  • General Mannerheim elected Regent of Finland (see December 6th, 1917).

12th December

  • British troops cross the Rhine at Cologne (see 6th).
  • General Coanda, Rumanian Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns (see 1st and 14th).

13th December

  • Hodeida (Southern Arabia) taken by British forces.

14th December

  • Armistice on the Western Front prolonged to january 17th, 1919 (see November 11th).
  • M. Bratianu appointed Rumanian Premier and Foreign Minister (see 12th).
  • Dr. da Silva Paes, Portuguese President, assassinated (see 16th and May 9th).

15th December

  • Poland severs diplomatic relations with Germany (see November 16th).

16th December

  • Field-Marshal Mackensen and his forces surrender to the Hungarians near Budapest.
  • Last German troops leave Finland (see April 3rd).
  • First meeting of "Imperial Conference" of Soldiers and Workmen in Berlin.
  • Senhor Antunes appointed Acting Portuguese President (see 14th).

17th December

  • Major-General Scheuch, German Minister for War, resigns (see October 9th).

20th December

  • Kiev occupied by Petlyura's Ukrainian revolutionary forces (see 11th and March 2nd).
  • French troops land at Odessa (see 11th).
  • M. Pasich, Premier of Serbia, resigns. (Appointed in 1912) (see 29th).

22nd December

  • Senhor J.T. de Sousa Barboza, Portuguese Secretary of the Interior, resigns (see 23rd and May 16th).

23rd December

  • Senhor J.T. de Sousa Barboza appointed Portuguese Premier and Minister of Interior (see 22nd).

24th December

  • Perm (East Russia) taken by Kolchak's forces (see November 18th).

26th December

  • Formation of West Ukraine Republic announced (see November 20th, 1917).
  • Dorpat (Estonia) evacuated by the German forces (see February 24th).

27th December

  • Batum (Georgia) occupied by British forces [This force subsequently occupied the whole of Georgia, with headquarters at Tiflis.] (see April 15th).
  • King of Rumania issues Proclamation annexing the Rumanian provinces of Austria-Hungary (see 1st).

29th December

  • M. Stoyan Protich appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (see 4th and 20th).

30th December

  • Kadish (North Russia) taken by Allied forces.
  • Birsk (East Russia) taken by Kolchak's forces (see 24th).

31st December

  • Ufa and Sterlitamak (East Russia) taken by Bolshevik forces.